The World Spider Catalog, V15 by N. I. Platnick (c) 2000 - 2014 AMNH

Family: ARANEIDAE

Gen. Cyclosa Menge, 1866 [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidergen:01464]

N.B.: considered a senior synonym of Parazygia Caporiacco, 1955, type P. accentonotata Caporiacco, 1955 [=C. caroli (Hentz, 1850)] by Levi, 1977a: 73.

Transferred to other genera:
C. bicauda Saito, 1933 -- see Cyrtophora.
C. bifurca (McCook, 1887) -- see Allocyclosa.
C. bifurcata Paik, 1942 -- see Cyrtophora.
C. furcata O. P.-Cambridge, 1898 -- see Allocyclosa.
C. minuscula Mello-Leitão, 1940 -- see Dolichognatha under Tetragnathidae.
C. moraballii (Hingston, 1932) -- see Parawixia.
C. oliverioi Soares & Camargo, 1948 -- see Alpaida.
C. paranensis Mello-Leitão, 1937 -- see Opas under Tetragnathidae.
C. rainbowi Roewer, 1955 -- see Cyrtophora.
C. silvestris (Bryant, 1942) -- see Metazygia.
C. spinosa Saito, 1933 -- see Arachnura.
C. tuberculata (Hingston, 1932) -- see Parawixia.
C. v-notata Petrunkevitch, 1925 -- see Faiditus under Theridiidae.

In synonymy:
C. accentonotata (Caporiacco, 1955) = C. tapetifaciens Hingston, 1932 (Levi, 1999: 338, contra Levi, 1977a: 83).
C. brevis Bryant, 1940 = C. diversa (O. P.-Cambridge, 1894) (Levi, 1999: 369).
C. clara O. P.-Cambridge, 1898 = C. triquetra Simon, 1895 (Levi, 1999: 352).
C. conica canadensis Blackwall, 1846 = C. conica (Pallas, 1772) (Levi, 1977a: 78).
C. cuadrituberosa Franganillo, 1936 = C. walckenaeri (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889) (Levi, 1999: 360, after Levi, 1977a: 85).
C. culta O. P.-Cambridge, 1893 = C. turbinata (Walckenaer, 1841) (Levi, 1977a: 80).
C. elongata Franganillo, 1930 = C. caroli (Hentz, 1850) (Franganillo, 1936c: 83).
C. filiobliqua Hingston, 1932 = C. tapetifaciens Hingston, 1932 (Levi, 1999: 338).
C. filisinuosa Hingston, 1932 = C. fililineata Hingston, 1932 (Levi, 1999: 330).
C. fissicauda Simon, 1889 = C. quinqueguttata (Thorell, 1881) (Tanikawa & Ono, 1993: 55).
C. fusiformis (Taczanowski, 1878) = C. bifurcata (Walckenaer, 1841) (Levi, 1999: 365).
C. globulifaciens Hingston, 1932 = C. bifurcata (Walckenaer, 1841) (Levi, 1999: 365).
C. glomosa (Walckenaer, 1841) = C. turbinata (Walckenaer, 1841) (McCook, 1888a: 79, omitted by Roewer).
C. hybophora (Thorell, 1887) = C. quinqueguttata (Thorell, 1881) (Roberts, 1983: 261).
C. index O. P.-Cambridge, 1889 = C. turbinata (Walckenaer, 1841) (Levi, 1977a: 80).
C. kiangsica Schenkel, 1963 = C. argenteoalba Bösenberg & Strand, 1906 (Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 263).
C. lacerta O. P.-Cambridge, 1889 = C. caroli (Hentz, 1850) (Levi, 1977a: 82).
C. longispina (Saito, 1933, T from Argyrodes) = C. mulmeinensis (Thorell, 1887) (Yaginuma, 1963d: 21).
C. moesta (Blackwall, 1865) = C. insulana (Costa, 1834) (Berland, 1936: 87, omitted by Roewer).
C. nanna Ivie & Barrows, 1935 = C. turbinata (Walckenaer, 1841) (Levi, 1977a: 80).
C. quavansea Roberts, 1983 = C. camelodes (Thorell, 1878) (Saaristo, 2010: 34).
C. scelesta (O. P.-Cambridge, 1894, removed from S of C. diversa) = C. bifurcata (Walckenaer, 1841) (Levi, 1999: 365).
C. strandjae Drensky, 1915 = C. conica (Pallas, 1772) (Deltshev & Blagoev, 2001: 110).
C. sumaqkay Archer, 1971 = C. tapetifaciens Hingston, 1932 (Levi, 1999: 338).
C. trifida F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904 = C. walckenaeri (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889) (Levi, 1977a: 84).
C. tuberculifera O. P.-Cambridge, 1898 = C. turbinata (Walckenaer, 1841) (Levi, 1999: 356, after Levi, 1977a: 80).
C. vanbruyseli (Becker, 1879, T from Singa) = C. turbinata (Walckenaer, 1841) (Levi, 1972a: 231).
C. velata Chrysanthus, 1961 = C. albopunctata Kulczyn'ski, 1901 (Chrysanthus, 1971: 25).

Nomina dubia:
C. convexisterna Caporiacco, 1947a: 25, 1948a: 656, f. 63 (j, Guyana) -- Levi, 1999: 310 (as juvenile of Mecynometa).
C. tremula Hingston, 1932: 370 (m, Guyana) -- Levi, 1999: 338.
C. tricauda Saito, 1933b: 53, pl. 3, f. 38 (f, Taiwan) -- Tanikawa & Ono, 1993: 51 (but see Lee, 1966: 52, f. 17c-d, f, Taiwan).
C. tricolorata Brignoli, 1983c: 266 (replacement name for C. tricolor Mello-Leitão, 1940d: 202, f, Brazil, preoccupied by Leardi, 1902) -- Levi, 1999: 299.

Homonyms replaced:
C. tricolor Mello-Leitão, 1940 -- see C. tricolorata.
C. trituberculata Berland, 1913 -- see C. berlandi.

f alayoni Levi, 1999....................Cuba, Puerto Rico [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015563]
C. a. Levi, 1999: 374, f. 421-424 (Df).

mf alba Tanikawa, 1992....................Japan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015564]
C. a. Tanikawa, 1992b: 62, f. 198-201 (Df).
C. a. Tanikawa, 2007c: 61, f. 120, 541 (f).
C. a. Tanikawa, Ikeda & Yoshio, 2008: 68, f. 2-4 (Dm).
C. a. Tanikawa, 2009: 439, f. 122 (f).

mf albisternis Simon, 1888....................India, Andaman Is., Hawaii [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015565]
C. a. Simon, 1888a: 285 (Dmf).
C. a. Tanikawa, 1992b: 32, f. 56-60 (mf).

mf albopunctata Kulczyn'ski, 1901....................Africa, New Guinea, New Caledonia [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015566]
C. a. Kulczyn'ski, 1901a: 27, pl. 2, f. 23-24 (Dm).
Cyclosa velata Chrysanthus, 1961b: 201, f. 28, 30-33 (Dmf).
C. a. Chrysanthus, 1971: 25, f. 123-125 (m, S).
C. vellata Bigot, 1992: 116, f. 1c-e (mf).

mf algerica Simon, 1885....................Mediterranean [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015567]
C. a. Simon, 1885f: 21 (Df).
C. a. Simon, 1929: 711, 768, f. 1109-1111 (f, Dm).
C. a. Levi, 1977a: 79, f. 34-37 (mf).

mf andinas Levi, 1999....................Colombia, Ecuador [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015568]
C. a. Levi, 1999: 331, f. 108-116 (Dmf).

mf angusta Tanikawa, 1992....................Japan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015569]
C. a. Tanikawa, 1992b: 26, f. 35-38 (Df).
C. a. Tanikawa, 1997a: 29, f. 1-6 (Dm).
C. a. Tanikawa, 2007c: 58, f. 94, 499-500 (mf).
C. a. Tanikawa, 2009: 435, f. 81-82 (mf).

f argentata Tanikawa & Ono, 1993....................Taiwan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015570]
C. a. Tanikawa & Ono, 1993: 59, f. 10-12 (Df).
C. a. Yin et al., 1997d: 228, f. 141a-c (f).
C. a. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 263, f. 155O-P, 160C (f).

mf argenteoalba Bösenberg & Strand, 1906....................Russia, China, Korea, Taiwan, Japan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015571]
C. a. Bösenberg & Strand, 1906: 202, pl. 4, f. 38, pl. 15, f. 419 (Df).
C. kiangsica Schenkel, 1963: 139, f. 81 (Df).
C. kiangsica Yin, 1978: 7, f. 18A-D (f).
C. kiangsica Song, 1980: 110, f. 55a-d (f).
C. kingsica Wang, 1981: 101, f. 42A-C (f, lapsus).
C. a. Hu, 1984: 106, f. 102.1 (f).
C. kiangsica Hu, 1984: 107, f. 102.2 (f).
C. kiangsica Guo, 1985: 61, f. 2-16.1-2 (f).
C. a. Yaginuma, 1986a: 121, f. 64.2 (mf).
C. a. Song, 1987: 168, f. 128 (mf).
C. a. Chikuni, 1989b: 86, f. 73 (mf).
C. a. Feng, 1990: 70, f. 45.1-3 (mf).
C. argenteoalbe Chen & Gao, 1990: 54, f. 62a-c (mf).
C. a. Chen & Zhang, 1991: 92, f. 83.1-4 (mf).
C. kiangsica Chen & Zhang, 1991: 99, f. 91.1-4 (f).
C. a. Tanikawa, 1992b: 65, f. 211-221 (mf).
C. a. Zhao, 1993: 236, f. 109a-b (mf).
C. a. Yin et al., 1997d: 256, f. 167a-i (mf).
C. a. Song, Chen & Zhu, 1997: 1711, f. 11a-d (mf).
C. a. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 263, f. 155Q-R, 158I, 160H (mf, S).
C. a. Namkung, 2002: 299, f. 19.60a-b (mf).
C. a. Kim & Kim, 2002: 196, f. 29, 107, 207-208 (mf).
C. a. Kim & Cho, 2002: 256, f. 619-624 (f).
C. a. Namkung, 2003: 301, f. 19.60a-b (mf).
C. a. Tanikawa, 2007c: 64, f. 121-124, 542-544 (mf).
C. a. Tanikawa, 2009: 439, f. 123-125 (mf).
C. a. Zhu & Zhang, 2011: 212, f. 149A-F (mf).
C. a. Yin et al., 2012: 636, f. 310a-i (mf).

mf atrata Bösenberg & Strand, 1906....................Russia, China, Korea, Japan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015572]
C. a. Bösenberg & Strand, 1906: 204, pl. 4, f. 28, pl. 15, f. 417 (Df).
C. a. Strand, 1918: 95, pl. 2, f. 17 (f).
C. a. Saito, 1934b: 318, pl. 14, f. 21 (f).
C. a. Matsuyama, 1957: 9, f. 1-15 (mf).
C. a. Saito, 1959: 97, f. 109a-e (f).
C. a. Yaginuma, 1986a: 121, f. 64.3 (mf).
C. a. Feng, 1990: 71, f. 46.1-3 (f).
C. otrata Chen & Gao, 1990: 58, f. 69a-b (f).
C. a. Chen & Zhang, 1991: 95, f. 87.1-3 (f).
C. a. Tanikawa, 1992b: 45, f. 109-118 (mf).
C. a. Yin et al., 1997d: 228, f. 142a-g (mf).
C. a. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 263, f. 155S-T (f).
C. a. Namkung, 2002: 301, f. 19.62a-b (mf).
C. a. Kim & Kim, 2002: 196, f. 108, 209-210 (mf).
C. a. Kim & Cho, 2002: 256, f. 625-630 (f).
C. a. Namkung, 2003: 303, f. 19.62a-b (mf).
C. a. Lee et al., 2004: 99, unnumbered f. (f).
C. a. Tanikawa, 2007c: 60, f. 110, 518-521 (mf).
C. a. Tanikawa, 2009: 437, f. 100-103 (mf).
C. a. Zhu & Zhang, 2011: 213, f. 150A-D (m).
C. a. Yin et al., 2012: 638, f. 311a-g (mf).

f baakea Barrion & Litsinger, 1995....................Philippines [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015573]
C. b. Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 605, f. 380a-f (Df).

f bacilliformis Simon, 1908....................Western Australia [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015574]
C. b. Simon, 1908d: 423 (Df).

f baloghi Kolosváry, 1934....................Hungary [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015575]
C. b. Kolosváry, 1934b: 12, f. 2 (Df).
C. b. Kolosváry, 1938e: 14, f. d-e (f).

f banawensis Barrion & Litsinger, 1995....................Philippines [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015576]
C. b. Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 592, f. 369a-h (Df).

mf berlandi Levi, 1999....................USA, Hispaniola to Ecuador [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015577]
C. trituberculata Berland, 1913b: 91, pl. 9, f. 36-41 (Dmf).
C. b. Levi, 1999: 358, f. 322-332 (replacement name for C. trituberculata Berland, preoccupied in this genus by Lucas, 1846)

mf bianchoria Yin et al., 1990....................China [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015578]
C. ginnaga Chen & Gao, 1990: 55, f. 63b (mf, misidentified).
C. b. Yin et al., 1990: 59, f. 148-155 (Dmf).
C. b. Song, Zhu & Li, 1993: 872, f. 37A-B (f).
C. b. Yin et al., 1997d: 229, f. 143a-i (mf).
C. b. Song, Chen & Zhu, 1997: 1712, f. 12a-b (m).
C. b. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 263, f. 155U, 158J, 160I (mf).
C. b. Yin et al., 2012: 640, f. 312a-i (mf).

mf bifida (Doleschall, 1859)....................India to Philippines, New Guinea [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015579]
Epeira b. Doleschall, 1859: 38, pl. 2, f. 8 (Df).
Epeira macrura Thorell, 1877b: 402 (Df).
C. b. Simon, 1895a: 779, f. 852.
Epeira b. Workman, 1896: 33, pl. 33 (f, Dm).
C. macrura Strand, 1911d: 149.
C. b. Tikader, 1966b: 14, f. 31-34 (f).
C. b. Chrysanthus, 1971: 21, f. 34-36 (f).
C. b. Tikader, 1982a: 185, f. 351-355 (f).
C. b. Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 608, f. 381a-g (f).
C. b. Keswani, 2013: 62, f. 1A-H (f).

mf bifurcata (Walckenaer, 1841)....................Costa Rica, Hispaniola to Argentina [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015580]
Epeira b. Walckenaer, 1841: 145 (Dmf).
Epeira b. Keyserling, 1864: 142, pl. 6, f. 22-23 (f).
Epeira fusiformis Taczanowski, 1878b: 173, pl. 2, f. 22 (Dmf).
Epeira b. Keyserling, 1892: 97, pl. 5, f. 72 (f).
Turckheimia scelesta O. P.-Cambridge, 1898a: 268, pl. 39, f. 10 (Df).
Cyrtophora fusiformis Banks, 1898b: 256.
C. fusiformis F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 497.
C. globulifaciens Hingston, 1932: 369 (Df).
C. b. Levi, 1999: 365, f. 26, 368-377 (mf, S).
C. b. Levi, 2002: 540, f. 84-85 (f).

m bihamata Zhang, Zhang & Zhu, 2010....................China [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:043932]
C. b. Zhang, Zhang & Zhu, 2010b: 698, f. 2a-c (Dm).

f bilobata Sen, Saha & Raychaudhuri, 2012....................India [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:046437]
C. b. Sen, Saha & Raychaudhuri, 2012: 10, f. 1-9 (Df).

f bituberculata Biswas & Raychaudhuri, 1998....................Bangladesh [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015581]
C. b. Biswas & Raychaudhuri, 1998a: 46, f. 1-6 (Df).

f bulleri (Thorell, 1881)....................New Guinea [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015582]
Epeira b. Thorell, 1881: 119 (Df).
C. b. Simon, 1895a: 780.

f cajamarca Levi, 1999....................Peru [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015583]
C. c. Levi, 1999: 344, f. 232-235 (Df).

f caligata (Thorell, 1890)....................Sumatra [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015584]
Epeira c. Thorell, 1890a: 176 (Df).
C. c. Roewer, 1942a: 756.

f camargoi Levi, 1999....................Brazil [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015585]
C. c. Levi, 1999: 343, f. 212-217 (Df).

mf camelodes (Thorell, 1878)....................Seychelles, New Guinea [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015586]
Epeira c. Thorell, 1878b: 78 (Df).
C. c. Kulczyn'ski, 1911c: 479 (Dm).
C. c. Chrysanthus, 1961b: 201, f. 16-18, 81 (f).
C. c. Chrysanthus, 1971: 22, f. 37-39, 116 (m).
C. quavansea Roberts, 1983: 258, f. 139-154 (Dmf) [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015693].
C. c. Tanikawa, 1992b: 51, f. 143-145 (f).
C. c. Saaristo, 2010: 34, f. 4.10-12 (mf, S).

mf caroli (Hentz, 1850)....................USA, West Indies to Bolivia [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015587]
Epeira c. Hentz, 1850: 24, pl. 3, f. 15 (Df).
Epeira c. Keyserling, 1864: 137, pl. 6, f. 17-19 (f).
C. lacerta O. P.-Cambridge, 1889d: 50 (Dm).
Epeira lacerta Keyserling, 1893: 275, pl. 14, f. 204 (m).
Epeira c. McCook, 1894: 277, pl. 17, f. 7-8 (f, Dm).
Epeira c. Keyserling, 1893: 272, pl. 14, f. 202 (mf).
C. c. Simon, 1897d: 873.
C. lacerta F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 491, pl. 47, f. 3 (m).
C. c. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 494, pl. 47, f. 4 (f).
C. c. Petrunkevitch, 1930a: 316, f. 190-191 (f).
C. elongata Franganillo, 1930: 24 (D; N.B.: omitted by Roewer and Brignoli).
C. c. Franganillo, 1936c: 83 (S).
C. c. Bryant, 1940: 336, f. 114 (f).
C. c. Levi, 1977a: 82, f. 51-63 (mf, S).
C. c. Levi, 1999: 336, f. 162-180 (mf).

f centrifaciens Hingston, 1927....................Myanmar [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015588]
C. c. Hingston, 1927: 290 (Df).

f centrodes (Thorell, 1887)....................India to Singapore [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015589]
Epeira porcula Hasselt, 1882: 22, pl. 4, f. 6 (f, misidentified).
Epeira c. Thorell, 1887: 209 (Df).
Epeira c. Workman, 1896: 35, pl. 35 (f).
Araneus c. Simon, 1899a: 91.
C. c. Tikader, 1977a: 179 (Tf from Araneus).

m cephalodina Song & Liu, 1996....................China [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015590]
C. c. Song & Liu, in Song et al., 1996: 105, f. 1A-E (Dm).
C. c. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 264, f. 158K-L, 160K (m).

f chichawatniensis Mukhtar & Mushtaq, 2005....................Pakistan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:040013]
C. c. Mukhtar & Mushtaq, 2005b: 201, f. 1a-f (Df).

f circumlucens Simon, 1907....................Guinea-Bissau, São Tomé [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015591]
C. c. Simon, 1907d: 286 (Df).

f concolor Caporiacco, 1933....................Libya [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015592]
C. c. Caporiacco, 1933: 324, f. 6 (Df).

mf confraga (Thorell, 1892)....................India, Bangladesh to Malaysia [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015593]
Epeira c. Thorell, 1892a: 239 (Df).
Epeira c. Workman, 1896: 34, pl. 34 (f).
C. c. Simon, 1909e: 104.
C. c. Dyal, 1935: 191, pl. 11, f. 9, pl. 16, f. 117-119 (f, Dm).
C. c. Tikader, 1982a: 193, f. 372-376 (f).
C. c. Biswas & Raychaudhuri, 1998a: 46, f. 27-33 (f).
C. c. Gajbe, 2007: 519, f. 287-291 (f).
C. c. Keswani, 2013: 64, f. 2A-F (f).

mf confusa Bösenberg & Strand, 1906....................China, Korea, Taiwan, Japan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015594]
C. c. Bösenberg & Strand, 1906: 209, pl. 15, f. 418 (Dm).
C. insulana Chikuni, 1989b: 84, f. 68 (m, misidentified).
C. c. Tanikawa, 1992b: 34, f. 65-80 (m, Df).
C. c. Kim & Kim, 1996: 45, f. 1-5 (f).
C. c. Yin et al., 1997d: 236, f. 149a-k (mf).
C. c. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 264, f. 156A-B, 158M-N, 160L (mf).
C. c. Tanikawa, 2007c: 60, f. 99-107, 507-510 (mf).
C. c. Tanikawa, 2009: 435, f. 89-92 (mf).
C. c. Yin et al., 2012: 641, f. 313a-k (mf).

mf conica (Pallas, 1772) *....................Holarctic [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015595]
Aranea c. Pallas, 1772: 48, pl. 1, f. 16 (Df).
Aranea triquetra Sulzer, 1776: 254, pl. 30, f. 2 (Df).
Aranea c. De Geer, 1778: 231, pl. 13, f. 16-20 (f).
Aranea c. Olivier, 1789: 203 (D).
Epeira c. Walckenaer, 1802: 202.
Epeira c. Dufour, 1824: 207, pl. 10, f. 3 (Dm).
Epeira c. Hahn, 1834: 45, f. 130 (mf).
Singa c. C. L. Koch, 1837b: 6.
Singa c. C. L. Koch, 1844: 145, f. 943-945 (mf).
Epeira canadensis Blackwall, 1846a: 81 (Df).
Epeira c. Blackwall, 1864a: 362, pl. 27, f. 261 (mf).
C. c. Menge, 1866: 74, pl. 12, f. 18 (mf).
Cyrtophora c. Thorell, 1870a: 18.
C. c. O. P.-Cambridge, 1881a: 246, pl. 4, f. 6 (mf).
Cyrtophora c. Hansen, 1882: 22, pl. 1, f. 37 (mf).
C. c. Emerton, 1884: 321, pl. 34, f. 3, pl. 38, f. 11 (mf).
C. c. Chyzer & Kulczyn'ski, 1891: 127, pl. 4, f. 42 (mf).
C. c. Keyserling, 1893: 276, pl. 14, f. 205 (mf).
C. c. Becker, 1896: 7, pl. 2, f. 1 (mf).
C. c. Bösenberg, 1901: 41, pl. 3, f. 29 (mf).
C. c. Emerton, 1902: 183, f. 428-429 (mf).
C. c. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 493, pl. 46, f. 19-20 (mf).
C. c. Kulczyn'ski, 1907: 574, pl. 21, f. 12-13 (f).
C. strandjae Drensky, 1915: 143, 174, pl. 1, f. 1 (Dj, see Dimitrov, 1999: 23, f. 1).
C. c. Simon, 1929: 710, 767, f. 1106-1108 (mf).
C. c. canadensis Simon, 1929: 768.
C. c. Reimoser, 1930b: 14, f. 4 (mf).
C. c. Wiehle, 1931: 18, f. 8, 17-21 (mf).
C. c. Drensky, 1943: 225, f. 5 (mf).
C. c. Kaston, 1948: 236, f. 711-713 (m).
C. c. Locket & Millidge, 1953: 166, f. 111A-D (mf).
C. c. Zamaraev, 1964: 352, f. 18 (f).
C. c. Azheganova, 1968: 82, f. 165, 173, 188 (mf).
C. c. Miller, 1971: 202, pl. XXXVII, f. 17-18 (mf).
C. c. Loksa, 1972: 109, f. 99A-B (mf).
C. c. Palmgren, 1974a: 7, f. 2d-g (mf).
C. c. Punda, 1975b: 40, f. 64, 66-67 (f).
C. c. Levi, 1977a: 78, f. 1-19 (mf, S).
C. c. Roberts, 1985: 222, f. 100b (mf).
C. c. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 82, f. 182 (mf).
C. c. Roberts, 1995: 336, f. (mf).
C. c. Mcheidze, 1997: 255, f. 554-557 (mf).
C. c. Yin et al., 1997d: 258, f. 169a-e (mf).
C. c. Roberts, 1998: 349, f. (mf).
C. c. Levi, 1999: 320, f. 42-48 (mf).
C. c. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 264, f. 156C, 158O, 160M (mf).
C. c. Deltshev & Blagoev, 2001: 110 (S).
C. c. Levi, 2002: 540, f. 78, 81, 83 (f).
C. c. Bayram & Ünal, 2002: 173, f. 1A-E (f).
C. c. Paquin & Dupérré, 2003: 46, f. 305-307 (mf).
C. c. Dondale et al., 2003: 162, f. 336-346 (mf).
C. c. Trotta, 2005: 149, f. 29 (f).
C. c. Almquist, 2005: 158, f. 166a-i (mf).
C. c. Kuntner, Coddington & Hormiga, 2008: 174, f. 15D-F (m).
C. c. Marusik, 2009h: 14, f. 6-7 (m).
C. c. Álvarez-Padilla & Hormiga, 2011: 846, f. 133C, 134D, 140B (mf).

f conica albifoliata Strand, 1907....................France [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015596]
C. c. a. Strand, 1907e: 233 (Df).
C. c. rubricauda Simon, 1929: 710, 768 (Df).

f conica defoliata Strand, 1907....................Central Europe [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015597]
C. c. d. Strand, 1907e: 233 (Df).
C. c. triangulifera Simon, 1929: 710, 768 (Df).

f conica dimidiata Simon, 1929....................France [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015598]
C. c. d. Simon, 1929: 711, 768 (Df).

f conica leucomelas Strand, 1907....................Central Europe [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015599]
C. c. l. Strand, 1907e: 232 (Df).

f conica pyrenaica Strand, 1907....................France [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015600]
C. c. p. Strand, 1907e: 233 (Df).

f conica zamezai Franganillo, 1909....................Portugal [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015601]
C. c. z. Franganillo, 1909: 186 (Df).
C. c. z. Franganillo, 1910: 9, f. 3-4 (f).

f conigera F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904....................Mexico to Honduras [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015602]
C. c. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 494, pl. 47, f. 5 (Df).
C. c. Levi, 1999: 322, f. 57-61 (f, removed from S of C. caroli, contra Levi, 1977a: 83).

f coylei Levi, 1999....................Mexico, Guatemala [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015603]
C. c. Levi, 1999: 324, f. 62-66 (Df).

mf cucurbitoria (Yin et al., 1990)....................China, Thailand [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015604]
Eustala c. Yin et al., 1990: 65, f. 163-168 (Df).
C. c. Yin & Gong, 1996: 74, f. 9-11 (Tf from Eustala, Dm).
C. c. Yin et al., 1997d: 231, f. 144a-h (mf).
C. c. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 264, f. 156D-E, 158P-Q, 160N (mf).
C. c. Yin et al., 2012: 643, f. 314a-h (mf).
C. c. Chotwong & Tanikawa, 2013: 3, f. 4-5, 11-13 (mf).

f cucurbitula Simon, 1900....................Hawaii [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015605]
C. c. Simon, 1900a: 482 (Df).

f curiraba Levi, 1999....................Bolivia [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015606]
C. c. Levi, 1999: 346, f. 240-243 (Df).

f cylindrata Yin, Zhu & Wang, 1995....................China [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015607]
C. c. Yin, Zhu & Wang, 1995: 11, f. 1-3 (Df).
C. c. Yin et al., 1997d: 232, f. 145a-c (f).
C. c. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 264, f. 156F-G, 160O (f).

f cylindrifaciens Hingston, 1927....................Myanmar [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015608]
C. c. Hingston, 1927: 291 (Df).

f damingensis Xie, Yin & Kim, 1995....................China [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015609]
C. d. Xie, Yin & Kim, 1995: 23, f. 1-5 (Df).
C. d. Yin et al., 1997d: 259, f. 170a-e (f).
C. d. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 264, f. 156H-I, 160P (f).
C. d. Yin et al., 2012: 645, f. 315a-e (f).

mf deserticola Levy, 1998....................Egypt, Israel [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015610]
C. d. Levy, 1998a: 320, f. 33-46 (Dmf).

mf dianasilvae Levi, 1999....................Ecuador, Peru [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015611]
C. d. Levi, 1999: 343, f. 223-231 (Dmf).

mf diversa (O. P.-Cambridge, 1894)....................Mexico, Cuba to Argentina [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015612]
Turckheimia d. O. P.-Cambridge, 1894a: 136, pl. 16, f. 11 (Df).
C. d. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 496, pl. 47, f. 10 (f).
C. brevis Bryant, 1940: 335, f. 110 (Dm).
C. d. Alayón, 1993d: 4, f. 2A-D (f).
C. d. Levi, 1999: 369, f. 391-412 (f, Sm).

mf dives Simon, 1877....................China, Philippines [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015613]
C. d. Simon, 1877b: 71 (Dm).
C. d. Tanikawa, 1992b: 32, f. 63-64 (m).
C. d. Zhu et al., 1994: 35, f. 10A-H (m, Df).
C. d. Yin et al., 1997d: 237, f. 150a-h (mf).
C. d. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 264, f. 156J-K, 158R, 160Q (mf).

f donking Levi, 1999....................Bolivia [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015614]
C. d. Levi, 1999: 341, f. 195-198 (Df).

f dosbukolea Barrion & Litsinger, 1995....................Philippines [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015615]
C. d. Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 601, f. 377a-i (Df).

f durango Levi, 1999....................Mexico [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015616]
C. d. Levi, 1999: 325, f. 71-76 (Df).

f elongata Biswas & Raychaudhuri, 1998....................Bangladesh [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015617]
C. e. Biswas & Raychaudhuri, 1998a: 49, f. 7-13 (Df).

m espumoso Levi, 1999....................Brazil [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015618]
C. e. Levi, 1999: 355, f. 298-303 (Dm).

mf fililineata Hingston, 1932....................Panama to Argentina [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015619]
C. sericaria Simon, 1895a: 782 (nomen nudum)
C. f. Hingston, 1932: 371 (Df).
C. filisinuosa Hingston, 1932: 372 (Dm).
C. f. Levi, 1999: 330, f. 36-37, 96-107 (f, Sm).

f formosa Karsch, 1879....................West Africa [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015620]
C. f. Karsch, 1879e: 835 (Df).
Salassina f. Pocock, 1898g: 513.

f formosana Tanikawa & Ono, 1993....................Taiwan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015621]
C. f. Tanikawa & Ono, 1993: 57, f. 6-9 (Df).
C. f. Yin et al., 1997d: 238, f. 151a-d (f).
C. f. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 264, f. 156L-M, 160R (f).

mf fuliginata (L. Koch, 1872)....................New South Wales, Victoria [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015622]
Epeira fuliginata L. Koch, 1872a: 106, pl. 8, f. 7 (Df).
C. f. Dondale, 1966: 1162, f. 3G-J (Tf from Araneus, Dm).

mf ginnaga Yaginuma, 1959....................China, Korea, Taiwan, Japan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015623]
C. g. Yaginuma, 1959b: 12, f. 8-13 (Df).
C. g. Yaginuma, 1960: 67, f. 63 (f).
C. g. Lee, 1966: 52, f. 17g-i (f).
C. g. Yaginuma, 1971: 67, f. 63 (f).
C. g. Hu, 1984: 107, f. 103.1-2 (f).
C. g. Yaginuma, 1986a: 121, f. 64.1 (f).
C. g. Zhang & Zhu, 1987: 33, f. 1A-B (Dm).
C. g. Zhang, 1987: 77, f. 60.1-4 (mf).
C. g. Chen & Gao, 1990: 55, f. 63a (mf, not f. 63b).
C. g. Chen & Zhang, 1991: 97, f. 90.1-3 (f).
C. g. Tanikawa, 1992b: 71, f. 232-246 (mf).
C. g. Yin et al., 1997d: 233, f. 146a-c (f).
C. g. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 264, f. 156N-O, 160S (f).
C. g. Song, Zhu & Chen, 2001: 200, f. 120A-C (f).
C. g. Kim & Kim, 2002: 197, f. 30, 211-212 (f).
C. g. Tanikawa, 2007c: 64, f. 125-128, 549-551 (mf).
C. g. Tanikawa, 2009: 439, f. 129-131 (mf).
C. g. Zhu & Zhang, 2011: 214, f. 151A-C (f).

f gossypiata Keswani, 2013....................India [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:045983]
C. g. Keswani, 2013: 70, f. 5A-G (Df).

mf groppalii Pesarini, 1998....................Balearic Is., Crete [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015624]
C. g. Pesarini, in Groppali, Guerci & Pesarini, 1998: 71, f. 2b, 3, 5 (Dm).
C. g. Bosmans et al., 2013: 11, f. 42-45 (Df).

f gulinensis Xie, Yin & Kim, 1995....................China [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015625]
C. g. Xie, Yin & Kim, 1995: 24, f. 6-12 (Df).
C. g. Yin et al., 1997d: 244, f. 156a-g (f).
C. g. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 264, f. 156P-Q, 161A (f).
C. g. Yin et al., 2012: 646, f. 316a-g (f).

f haiti Levi, 1999....................Hispaniola, Jamaica, Mona Is. [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015626]
C. h. Levi, 1999: 365, f. 363-367 (Df).

mf hamulata Tanikawa, 1992....................Russia, Japan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015627]
C. atrata Chikuni, 1989b: 86, f. 76 (mf, misidentified).
C. h. Tanikawa, 1992b: 47, f. 119-129 (Dmf).
C. h. Tanikawa, 2007c: 61, f. 111, 522-525 (mf).
C. h. Tanikawa, 2009: 437, f. 104-107 (mf).

mf hexatuberculata Tikader, 1982....................India, Pakistan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015628]
C. h. Tikader, 1982a: 197, f. 382-387 (Dmf).

m hova Strand, 1907....................Madagascar [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015629]
C. h. Strand, 1907d: 730 (Dm).
C. h. Strand, 1907o: 47 (Dm).

mf huila Levi, 1999....................Colombia [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015630]
C. h. Levi, 1999: 336, f. 154-161 (Dmf).

f imias Levi, 1999....................Cuba [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015631]
C. i. Levi, 1999: 322, f. 49-52 (Df).

mf inca Levi, 1999....................Colombia to Argentina [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015632]
C. i. Levi, 1999: 326, f. 86-95 (Dmf).

mf informis Yin, Zhu & Wang, 1995....................China [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015633]
C. i. Yin, Zhu & Wang, 1995: 12, f. 4-11 (Dmf).
C. i. Yin et al., 1997d: 239, f. 152a-h (mf).
C. i. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 264, f. 156R-S, 158S, 161B (mf).

mf insulana (Costa, 1834)....................Mediterranean to Philippines, Australia [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015634]
Epeira i. Costa, 1834: 65 (Df).
Epeira anseripes Walckenaer, 1841: 146 (Df).
Epeira trituberculata Lucas, 1846: 248, pl. 15, f. 4 (Df).
Epeira moesta Blackwall, 1865a: 94 (Dm).
Singa trituberculata Canestrini & Pavesi, 1868: 790.
Cyrtophora argentea Ausserer, 1871b: 821, pl. 5, f. 8 (Dj).
C. trituberculata Simon, 1874a: 43.
Cyrtophora melanura Simon, 1877b: 72, pl. 3, f. 9 (Df).
C. propinqua Simon, 1882b: 230 (Dmf).
C. i. Thorell, 1892b: 232.
Cyrtophora interalbicans Bösenberg & Lenz, 1895: 42, pl. 2, f. 23 (Df).
Epeira i. Workman, 1896: 36, pl. 36 (mf).
C. i. Bösenberg & Strand, 1906: 205, pl. 4, f. 22, pl. 11, f. 243-244, pl. 15, f. 396 (Dmf).
C. i. Strand, 1918: 95, pl. 2, f. 6-7 (f).
C. i. Berland, 1936: 87 (S).
C. i. Roewer, 1938: 37, f. 25 (f).
C. i. Nakatsudi, 1942a: 306, f. 23-25 (f).
C. i. Saito, 1959: 99, f. 113a-d (f).
C. i. Chrysanthus, 1961b: 199, f. 19-27, 80 (mf).
C. i. Tikader, 1966b: 14, f. 35-38 (f).
C. i. Levi, 1977a: 74, f. 24-29 (mf).
C. i. Locket, 1980: 123, f. 29-31 (f).
C. i. Tikader, 1982a: 201, f. 394-398 (f).
C. i. Yaginuma, 1986a: 121, f. 64.6 (mf).
C. i. Tanikawa, 1992b: 32, f. 61-62 (m).
C. i. Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 598, f. 374a-f, 375a-g (mf).
C. i. Groppali, Guerci & Pesarini, 1998: 73, f. 2, 4, 6 (m).
C. i. Saaristo, 2010: 36, f. 4.13-16 (mf).

f ipilea Barrion & Litsinger, 1995....................Philippines [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015635]
C. i. Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 591, f. 368a-g (Df).

f jalapa Levi, 1999....................Mexico [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015636]
C. j. Levi, 1999: 322, f. 53-56 (Df).

mf japonica Bösenberg & Strand, 1906....................Russia, China, Korea, Taiwan, Japan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015637]
C. j. Bösenberg & Strand, 1906: 211, f. 2 (Df).
C. j. Saito, 1939: 12, f. 2(5) (f).
C. j. Yaginuma, 1958f: 71, f. 3-4 (f).
C. j. Saito, 1959: 98, f. 112a-d (f).
C. j. Yaginuma, 1960: 67, f. 63 (f).
C. j. Paik, 1962: 75, f. 3 (f).
C. insulana Lee, 1966: 51, f. 16i-j (f, misidentified).
C. j. Yaginuma, 1971: 67, f. 63 (f).
C. insulana Hu, 1984: 107, f. 104.1-2 (f, misidentified).
C. j. Yaginuma, 1986a: 119, f. 63.5 (mf).
C. j. Chikuni, 1989b: 86, f. 74 (mf).
C. insulana Chen & Gao, 1990: 55, f. 64a, c (mf, misidentified, not f. 64b).
C. j. Chen & Gao, 1990: 56, f. 65a-b (mf).
C. insulana Chen & Zhang, 1991: 96, f. 88.1-2 (f, misidentified).
C. j. Tanikawa, 1992b: 38, f. 81-96 (mf).
C. j. Yin et al., 1997d: 241, f. 153a-l (mf).
C. j. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 264, f. 156T-U, 159A-B, 161C (mf).
C. j. Namkung, 2002: 298, f. 19.59a-c (mf).
C. j. Kim & Kim, 2002: 198, f. 31, 109-110, 213-214 (mf).
C. j. Kim & Cho, 2002: 265, f. 631-636 (f).
C. j. Namkung, 2003: 300, f. 19.59a-c (mf).
C. j. Shin, 2007: 146, f. 5 (m).
C. j. Tanikawa, 2007c: 60, f. 108, 511-514 (mf).
C. j. Tanikawa, 2009: 437, f. 93-96 (mf).
C. j. Yin et al., 2012: 647, f. 317a-l (mf).

mf jose Levi, 1999....................Costa Rica [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015638]
C. j. Levi, 1999: 368, f. 378-386 (Dmf).

f kashmirica Caporiacco, 1934....................Karakorum [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015639]
C. k. Caporiacco, 1934a: 152 (Df).

mf kibonotensis Tullgren, 1910....................Central, East Africa, Seychelles [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015640]
C. k. Tullgren, 1910: 158, pl. 4, f. 98 (Dmf).
C. k. Saaristo, 2010: 36, f. 4.17-19 (mf).

f koi Tanikawa & Ono, 1993....................Taiwan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015641]
C. k. Tanikawa & Ono, 1993: 62, f. 22-25 (Df).
C. k. Yin et al., 1997d: 260, f. 171a-d (f).
C. k. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 271, f. 156V-W, 161D (f).

m krusa Barrion & Litsinger, 1995....................Pakistan, Philippines [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015642]
C. k. Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 596, f. 373a-h (Dm).

mf kumadai Tanikawa, 1992....................Russia, Korea, Japan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015643]
C. ginnaga Chikuni, 1989b: 86, f. 75 (mf, misidentified).
C. k. Tanikawa, 1992b: 74, f. 247-256 (Dmf).
C. k. Namkung, 2002: 300, f. 19.61a-c (mf).
C. k. Namkung, 2003: 302, f. 19.61a-c (mf).
C. k. Tanikawa, 2007c: 64, f. 129, 552-554 (mf).
C. k. Tanikawa, 2009: 439, f. 132-134 (mf).

mf laticauda Bösenberg & Strand, 1906....................China, Korea, Taiwan, Japan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015644]
C. l. Bösenberg & Strand, 1906: 209, pl. 15, f. 414 (Df).
C. l. Saito 1939: 12, f. 2.6 (Dm).
C. l. Saito, 1959: 98, f. 110a-b (m).
C. l. Namkung, 1964: 38, f. 28 (f).
C. l. Lee, 1966: 52, f. 17e-f (m).
C. l. Hu, 1984: 108, f. 105.1-3 (mf).
C. l. Yaginuma, 1986a: 119, f. 63.3 (mf).
C. l. Chikuni, 1989b: 87, f. 77 (f only; m=C. monticola).
C. l. Tanikawa, 1992b: 20, f. 12-21 (mf).
C. l. Yin et al., 1997d: 245, f. 157a-g (mf).
C. l. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 271, f. 156X-Y, 159C, 161E (mf).
C. l. Namkung, 2002: 296, f. 19.57a-c (mf).
C. l. Kim & Kim, 2002: 199, f. 32, 111, 215-216 (mf).
C. l. Kim & Cho, 2002: 265, f. 637-642 (m).
C. l. Namkung, 2003: 298, f. 19.57a-c (mf).
C. l. Tanikawa, 2007c: 58, f. 92, 495-496 (mf).
C. l. Tanikawa, 2009: 434, f. 77-78 (mf).

f lawrencei Caporiacco, 1949....................Kenya [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015645]
C. l. Caporiacco, 1949a: 409, f. 52 (Df).

f libertad Levi, 1999....................Ecuador, Peru [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015646]
C. l. Levi, 1999: 344, f. 236-239 (Df).

mf litoralis (L. Koch, 1867)....................Samoa, Fiji, Tahiti [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015647]
Epeira l. L. Koch, 1867b: 180 (Dm).
Epeira l. L. Koch, 1872a: 117, pl. 9, f. 5 (m).
Epeira strangulata L. Koch, 1872a: 118, pl. 9, f. 6 (Df).
C. strangulata Simon, 1885a: 37.
C. l. Berland, 1929b: 62.

mf longicauda (Taczanowski, 1878)....................Colombia to Argentina [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015648]
Singa l. Taczanowski, 1878b: 145 (Df).
Araneus longicaudus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 300.
C. l. Levi, 1999: 332, f. 117-126 (Tf from Singa, Dm).

mf machadinho Levi, 1999....................Brazil, Argentina [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015649]
C. m. Levi, 1999: 351, f. 265-274 (Dmf).

mf maderiana Kulczyn'ski, 1899....................Madeira, Canary Is. [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015650]
C. m. Kulczyn'ski, 1899: 390, pl. 7, f. 67-68, 71-73 (Df).
C. m. Wunderlich, 1987a: 134, f. 360-361 (Dm).

mf maritima Tanikawa, 1992....................Japan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015651]
C. camelodes Shinkai, 1977: 328, f. 13-14 (mf, misidentified).
C. camelodes Yaginuma, 1986a: 120, f. 63.6 (mf, misidentified).
C. m. Tanikawa, 1992b: 50, f. 131-142 (Dmf).
C. m. Tanikawa, 2007c: 61, f. 112, 526-528 (mf).
C. m. Tanikawa, 2009: 437, f. 108-110 (mf).

f mavaca Levi, 1999....................Colombia, Venezuela [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015652]
C. m. Levi, 1999: 342, f. 208-211 (Df).

m meruensis Tullgren, 1910....................East Africa [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015653]
C. m. Tullgren, 1910: 158, pl. 4, f. 97 (Dm).

f micula (Thorell, 1892)....................India, Singapore [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015654]
Epeira m. Thorell, 1892a: 245 (Df).
Epeira m. Workman, 1896: 40, pl. 40 (f).
C. m. Chrysanthus, 1961b: 203, f. 37-38 (f).

m minora Yin, Zhu & Wang, 1995....................China [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015655]
C. m. Yin, Zhu & Wang, 1995: 13, f. 12-16 (Dm).
C. m. Yin et al., 1997d: 261, f. 172a-e (m).
C. m. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 271, f. 159D-E, 161F (m).

f mocoa Levi, 1999....................Colombia [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015656]
C. m. Levi, 1999: 324, f. 67-70 (Df).

f mohini Dyal, 1935....................Pakistan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015657]
C. m. Dyal, 1935: 192 (Df).

mf monteverde Levi, 1999....................Costa Rica, Panama [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015658]
C. m. Levi, 1999: 355, f. 304-313 (Dmf).

mf monticola Bösenberg & Strand, 1906....................Russia, China, Korea, Taiwan, Japan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015659]
C. m. Bösenberg & Strand, 1906: 210, pl. 15, f. 413 (Df).
C. m. Yaginuma, 1986a: 119, f. 63.4 (f).
C. laticauda Zhang, 1987: 78, f. 61.1-2 (f, misidentified).
C. m. Chikuni, 1989b: 87, f. 78 (f).
C. laticauda Chikuni, 1989b: 87, f. 77 (misidentified, m only).
C. laticauda Chen & Gao, 1990: 56, f. 66a-c (mf, misidentified).
C. m. Chen & Gao, 1990: 57, f. 67 (f).
C. laticauda Feng, 1990: 73, f. 48.1-4 (mf, misidentified).
C. laticauda Chen & Zhang, 1991: 97, f. 89.1-3 (mf, misidentified).
C. m. Tanikawa, 1992b: 24, f. 23-34 (f, Dm).
C. m. Yin et al., 1997d: 246, f. 158a-j (mf).
C. m. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 271, f. 157A, 159F-G, 161G (mf).
C. m. Namkung, 2002: 295, f. 19.56a-c (mf).
C. m. Kim & Kim, 2002: 199, f. 112-113, 217 (mf).
C. m. Namkung, 2003: 297, f. 19.56a-c (mf).
C. m. Tanikawa, 2007c: 58, f. 93, 497-498 (mf).
C. m. Tanikawa, 2009: 435, f. 79-80 (mf).
C. m. Zhu & Zhang, 2011: 215, f. 152A-F (mf).
C. m. Yin et al., 2012: 649, f. 318a-j (mf).

mf moonduensis Tikader, 1963....................India [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015660]
C. m. Tikader, 1963b: 46, f. 5a-b (Df).
C. m. Patel, 1975b: 165, f. 3d (f).
C. m. Tikader, 1982a: 191, f. 376-371 (f).
C. m. Gajbe, 2007: 517, f. 283-286 (f).
C. m. Keswani, 2013: 66, f. 3A-H, 4A-G (f, Dm).

mf morretes Levi, 1999....................Brazil [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015661]
C. m. Levi, 1999: 350, f. 256-264 (Dmf).

mf mulmeinensis (Thorell, 1887)....................Africa to Japan, Philippines [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015662]
Epeira m. Thorell, 1887: 221 (Df).
Epeira m. Thorell, 1895: 192 (Dm).
Epeira m. Workman, 1896: 37, pl. 37 (mf).
C. m. Simon, 1909e: 104.
Argyrodes longispinus Saito, 1933b: 45, pl. 3, f. 26 (Df).
Argyrodes longispinus Saito, 1959: 69, f. 62a-e (f).
C. m. Chrysanthus, 1961b: 203, f. 34-36 (f).
C. m. Yaginuma, 1963d: 21, f. 1 (f, S).
C. m. Lee, 1966: 49, f. 16c-e (f).
C. m. Yaginuma, 1967b: 95, f. 2u (f).
C. m. Chrysanthus, 1971: 23, f. 120-122 (m).
C. m. Tikader, 1982a: 187, f. 356-360 (f).
C. m. Yaginuma, 1986a: 121, f. 64.5 (f).
C. m. Chikuni, 1989b: 85, f. 71 (f).
C. m. Tanikawa, 1990b: 5, f. 16-32 (mf, S).
C. m. Koh, 1991: 176, f. 9-12 (f).
C. m. Tanikawa, 1992b: 54, f. 149-165 (mf).
C. m. Okuma et al., 1993: 27, f. 23A-B (f).
C. m. Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 370a-g, 371a-e (f).
C. m. Yin et al., 1997d: 253, f. 164a-j (mf).
C. m. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 271, f. 157B-C, 159H (mf).
C. m. Tanikawa, 2007c: 61, f. 113-115, 531-534 (mf).
C. m. Tanikawa, 2009: 437, f. 112-115 (mf).
C. m. Yin et al., 2012: 651, f. 319a-i (mf).

mf neilensis Tikader, 1977....................Andaman Is. [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015663]
C. n. Tikader, 1977a: 179, f. 11A-D (Dmf).
C. n. Tikader, 1982a: 199, f. 388-393 (mf).

mf nevada Levi, 1999....................Colombia [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015664]
C. n. Levi, 1999: 333, f. 34-35, 127-137 (Dmf).

mf nigra Yin et al., 1990....................China [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015665]
C. n. Yin et al., 1990: 62, f. 156-162 (Dmf).
C. n. Yin et al., 1997d: 234, f. 147a-g (mf).
C. n. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 271, f. 157D-E, 159I, 161J (mf).
C. n. Yin et al., 2012: 653, f. 320a-g (mf).

f nodosa (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889)....................Guatemala to Costa Rica [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015666]
Turckheimia n. O. P.-Cambridge, 1889d: 47, pl. 4, f. 11 (Dj).
C. n. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 496, pl. 47, f. 11 (Df).
C. n. Levi, 1999: 374, f. 425-429 (f).

mf norihisai Tanikawa, 1992....................China, Japan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015667]
C. n. Tanikawa, 1992b: 41, f. 99-107 (Dmf).
C. n. Yin et al., 1997d: 242, f. 154a-f (f).
C. n. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 271, f. 157F-H, 160I (f).
C. n. Tanikawa, 2007c: 60, f. 109, 515-517 (mf).
C. n. Tanikawa, 2009: 437, f. 97-99 (mf).
C. n. Yin et al., 2012: 654, f. 321a-f (f).

mf oatesi (Thorell, 1892)....................Andaman Is. [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015668]
Epeira oatesii Thorell, 1892b: 228 (Dmf).
C. o. Tanikawa, 1992b: 62, f. 202-210 (mf).

mf octotuberculata Karsch, 1879....................China, Korea, Taiwan, Japan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015669]
C. o. Karsch, 1879g: 74, pl. 1, f. 8 (Dm).
C. o. Simon, 1895a: 779, f. 850.
C. o. Bösenberg & Strand, 1906: 208, pl. 15, f. 412 (m, Df).
C. o. Saito, 1939: 12, f. 2(7) (f).
C. ocutotuberculata Nakatsudi, 1942a: 306, f. 26 (f).
C. o. Saito, 1959: 98, f. 111a-b (f).
C. o. Lee, 1966: 51, f. 17a-b (f).
C. o. Paik & Namkung, 1979: 44, f. 25.1-2 (mf).
C. octotubenculata Hu, 1984: 109, f. 106.1-3 (f).
C. o. Yaginuma, 1986a: 119, f. 63.1 (mf).
C. o. Chikuni, 1989b: 84, f. 67 (mf).
C. o. Feng, 1990: 74, f. 49.1-5 (mf).
C. o. Chen & Gao, 1990: 57, f. 68a-c (mf).
C. o. Chen & Zhang, 1991: 94, f. 85.1-3, 86 (mf).
C. o. Tanikawa, 1992b: 16, f. 1-10 (mf).
C. o. Yin et al., 1997d: 247, f. 159a-h (mf).
C. o. Song, Chen & Zhu, 1997: 1713, f. 13a-c (m).
C. o. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 271, f. 157I-J, 159J, M, 161J (mf).
C. o. Namkung, 2002: 294, f. 19.55a-b (mf).
C. o. Kim & Kim, 2002: 200, f. 33, 114-115, 218-219 (mf).
C. o. Kim & Cho, 2002: 266, f. 643-648 (f).
C. o. Namkung, 2003: 296, f. 19.55a-b (mf).
C. o. Tanikawa, 2007c: 56, f. 90-91, 493-494 (mf).
C. o. Tanikawa, 2009: 433, f. 75-76 (mf).
C. o. Zhu & Zhang, 2011: 216, f. 152A-E (mf).
C. o. Yin et al., 2012: 655, f. 322a-h (mf).

mf oculata (Walckenaer, 1802)....................Palearctic [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015670]
Aranea o. Walckenaer, 1802: 428 (Df).
Epeira o. Walckenaer, 1805: 64.
Epeira o. Walckenaer, 1841: 144 (Dm).
Cyrtophora o. Simon, 1864: 262.
Singa o. L. Koch, 1870: 4.
Singa tuberculata Reinhard, 1874: 217.
C. o. Simon, 1874a: 41.
C. o. Chyzer & Kulczyn'ski, 1891: 128, pl. 4, f. 43 (mf).
C. o. Becker, 1896: 10, pl. 1, f. 3 (mf).
Cyrtophora o. Bösenberg, 1901: 41, pl. 3, f. 30 (mf).
C. o. Wiehle, 1931: 20, f. 22-25 (mf).
C. o. Schenkel, 1936b: 123, f. 43 (j).
C. o. Drensky, 1943: 224, f. 4 (mf).
C. o. Zamaraev, 1964: 353, f. 19-20 (f).
C. o. Azheganova, 1968: 84, f. 166, 189-190 (mf).
C. o. Miller, 1971: 202, pl. XXXVII, f. 19-20 (f).
C. o. Loksa, 1972: 109, f. 99C-D (mf).
C. o. Bakhvalov, 1974: 109, f. 32-35 (mf).
C. o. Levi, 1977a: 64, f. 21-23 (mf).
C. o. Hu & Wu, 1989: 100, f. 76.1-3 (f).
C. o. Izmailova, 1989: 62, f. 44 (m).
C. o. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 82, f. 183 (mf).
C. o. Roberts, 1995: 337, f. (mf).
C. o. Mcheidze, 1997: 254, f. 549-551 (mf).
C. o. Yin et al., 1997d: 249, f. 160a-e (f).
C. o. Roberts, 1998: 349, f. (mf).
C. o. Groppali, Guerci & Pesarini, 1998: 73, f. 1, 3, 7 (m).
C. o. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 271, f. 157K-L, 161K (f).
C. o. Zschokke & Bolzern, 2007: 11, f. 2-3 (mf).

f ojeda Levi, 1999....................Curaçao [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015671]
C. o. Levi, 1999: 372, f. 413-416 (Df).

mf okumae Tanikawa, 1992....................Russia, Korea, Japan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015672]
C. o. Tanikawa, 1992b: 68, f. 222-230 (Dmf).
C. o. Kim & Yoo, 1996: 30, f. 1-6 (f).
C. o. Kim & Kim, 2002: 201, f. 34, 220-221 (f).
C. o. Tanikawa, 2007c: 64, f. 545-548 (mf).
C. o. Tanikawa, 2009: 439, f. 126-128 (mf).

f olivenca Levi, 1999....................Brazil [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015673]
C. o. Levi, 1999: 354, f. 294-297 (Df).

f olorina Simon, 1900....................Hawaii [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015674]
C. o. Simon, 1900a: 481, pl. 16, f. 5 (Df).

mf omonaga Tanikawa, 1992....................China, Korea, Taiwan, Japan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015675]
C. insulana Chikuni, 1989b: 84, f. 68 (f, misidentified).
C. insulana Chen & Gao, 1990: 55, f. 64b (mf, misidentified, not f. 64a, c).
C. japonica Feng, 1990: 72, f. 47.1-4 (mf, misidentified).
C. o. Tanikawa, 1992b: 30, f. 44-55 (Dmf).
C. o. Kim, 1995a: 80, f. 1-6 (f).
C. o. Yin et al., 1997d: 243, f. 155a-k (mf).
C. o. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 271, f. 157M, 159K-L, 161L (mf).
C. o. Namkung, 2002: 297, f. 19.58a-c (mf).
C. o. Kim & Kim, 2002: 201, f. 35-36, 116-117, 222-224 (mf).
C. o. Namkung, 2003: 299, f. 19.58a-c (mf).
C. o. Tanikawa, 2007c: 58, f. 96-98, 503-506 (mf).
C. o. Tanikawa, 2009: 435, f. 85-88 (mf).
C. o. Yin et al., 2012: 657, f. 323a-k (mf).

mf onoi Tanikawa, 1992....................China, Japan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015676]
C. o. Tanikawa, 1992b: 28, f. 39-42 (Df).
C. o. Tanikawa, 1992d: 199, f. 1-6 (Dm).
C. o. Yin et al., 1997d: 249, f. 161a-k (mf).
C. o. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 271, f. 157N-P, 159N-O, 161M (mf).
C. o. Tanikawa, 2007c: 58, f. 95, 501-502 (mf).
C. o. Tanikawa, 2009: 435, f. 83-84 (mf).
C. o. Yin et al., 2012: 659, f. 324a-k, 3-21a-c (mf).

f oseret Levi, 1999....................Brazil [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015677]
C. o. Levi, 1999: 341, f. 199-203 (Df).

m otsomarka Barrion & Litsinger, 1995....................Philippines [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015678]
C. o. Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 601, f. 376a-f (Dm).

mf pantanal Levi, 1999....................Brazil [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015679]
C. p. Levi, 1999: 348, f. 248-255 (Dmf).

f parangmulmeinensis Barrion & Litsinger, 1995....................Philippines [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015680]
C. p. Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 594, f. 372a-j (Df).

m parangtarugoa Barrion & Litsinger, 1995....................Philippines [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015681]
C. p. Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 603, f. 378a-f (Dm).

f paupercula Simon, 1893....................Borneo [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015682]
C. p. Simon, 1893f: 322 (Df).

mf pedropalo Levi, 1999....................Colombia [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015683]
C. p. Levi, 1999: 334, f. 138-145 (Dmf).

f pellaxoides Roewer, 1955....................Singapore [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015684]
Epeira pellax Thorell, 1892a: 243 (Df; preoccupied by O. P.-Cambridge, 1885).
C. p. Roewer, 1955c: 757 (replacement name).

f pentatuberculata Yin, Zhu & Wang, 1995....................China [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015685]
C. p. Yin, Zhu & Wang, 1995: 14, f. 17-23 (Df).
C. p. Yin et al., 1997d: 251, f. 152a-g (f).
C. p. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 271, f. 157Q-S, 161N (f).
C. p. Yin et al., 2012: 660, f. 325a-g (f).

f perkinsi Simon, 1900....................Hawaii [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015686]
C. p. Simon, 1900a: 479 (Df).

m picchu Levi, 1999....................Peru [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015687]
C. p. Levi, 1999: 348, f. 244-247 (Dm).

mf pichilinque Levi, 1999....................Mexico [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015688]
C. p. Levi, 1999: 363, f. 344-353 (Dmf).

jj pseudoculata Schenkel, 1936....................China [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015689]
C. p. Schenkel, 1936b: 124, f. 44 (Dj).

f psylla (Thorell, 1887)....................Myanmar, Japan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015690]
Epeira p. Thorell, 1887: 214 (Df).
Aranea p. Bösenberg & Strand, 1906: 236, pl. 15, f. 402 (f).
C. p. Yaginuma, 1987b: 387 (Tf from Araneus).
C. p. Tanikawa, 1992b: 53, f. 146-148 (f).
C. p. Tanikawa, 2007c: 61, f. 529-530 (f).
C. p. Tanikawa, 2009: 437, f. 111 (f).

f punctata Keyserling, 1879....................Brazil [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015691]
C. p. Keyserling, 1879: 312, pl. 4, f. 14 (Df).
C. p. Keyserling, 1893: 271, pl. 14, f. 201 (f).
C. p. Levi, 1999: 376, f. 433-434 (f; N.B.: probably misplaced in this genus).

f punjabiensis Ghafoor & Beg, 2002....................Pakistan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:040014]
C. p. Ghafoor & Beg, 2002a: 525, f. 1A-C (Df).

f purnai Keswani, 2013....................India [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:045984]
C. p. Keswani, 2013: 76, f. 8A-H (Df).

f pusilla Simon, 1880....................New Caledonia [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015692]
C. p. Simon, 1880i: 168 (Df).

mf quinqueguttata (Thorell, 1881)....................India, Bhutan, Myanmar, China, Taiwan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015694]
Epeira quinque-guttata Thorell, 1881: 113 (Dm).
Epeira hybophora Thorell, 1887: 217 (Df).
C. fissicauda Simon, 1889i: 338 (Dj).
C. fissicauda Tikader, 1982a: 189, f. 361-366 (f).
C. q. Roberts, 1983: 261 (S).
C. q. Tanikawa, 1992b: 61, f. 190-197 (mf).
C. q. Tanikawa & Ono, 1993: 55, f. 2-5 (m, S).
C. q. Yin et al., 1997d: 254, f. 165a-f (mf).
C. q. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 271, f. 157T-U, 159P, 161O (mf).

mf reniformis Zhu, Lian & Chen, 2006....................China [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:040015]
C. r. Zhu, Lian & Chen, 2006: 16, f. 7-14 (Dmf).

m rhombocephala (Thorell, 1881)....................Queensland [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015696]
Epeira r. Thorell, 1881: 98 (Dm).
C. r. Simon, 1895a: 780.

mf rubronigra Caporiacco, 1947....................Costa Rica to Brazil [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015697]
C. r. Caporiacco, 1947a: 24 (Dm).
C. nigrorubra Caporiacco, 1948a: 655, f. 62 (m; lapsus).
C. r. Levi, 1999: 325, f. 77-85 (m, Df).

mf sachikoae Tanikawa, 1992....................Japan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015698]
C. s. Tanikawa, 1992b: 60, f. 182-189 (Dmf).
C. s. Tanikawa, 2007c: 61, f. 117-119, 539-540 (mf).
C. s. Tanikawa, Ikeda & Yoshio, 2008: 69, f. 5 (m).
C. s. Tanikawa, 2009: 439, f. 120-121 (mf).

f saismarka Barrion & Litsinger, 1995....................Pakistan, Philippines [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015699]
C. s. Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 605, f. 379a-h (Df).

mf sanctibenedicti (Vinson, 1863)....................Réunion [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015700]
Epeira sancti-benedicti Vinson, 1863: 204, 312, pl. 14, f. 3 (Df).
C. s. Lopez, 1990: 18, f. 7 (Dm).

mf santafe Levi, 1999....................Colombia [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015701]
C. s. Levi, 1999: 334, f. 146-153 (Dmf).

mf sedeculata Karsch, 1879....................China, Korea, Japan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015702]
C. s. Karsch, 1879g: 74, pl. 1, f. 9 (Dmf).
C. s. Bösenberg & Strand, 1906: 207, pl. 15, f. 416 (mf).
C. sediculata Saito, 1939: 13, f. 2(8) (f).
C. s. Yin, 1978: 7, f. 19A-C (f).
C. s. Song, 1980: 112, f. 56a-c (f).
Cyclasa s. Wang, 1981: 101, f. 43A-C (f).
C. s. Hu, 1984: 110, f. 107.1-3 (f).
C. s. Guo, 1985: 63, f. 2-18.1-3 (mf).
C. s. Zhu et al., 1985: 77, f. 64a-c (f).
C. s. Yaginuma, 1986a: 119, f. 63.2 (mf).
C. s. Chikuni, 1989b: 85, f. 70 (mf).
C. s. Feng, 1990: 75, f. 50.1-4 (mf).
C. s. Chen & Gao, 1990: 58, f. 70a-b (mf).
C. s. Chen & Zhang, 1991: 93, f. 84.1-3 (mf).
C. s. Tanikawa, 1992b: 77, f. 258-264 (mf).
C. s. Yin et al., 1997d: 262, f. 173a-f (mf).
C. s. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 272, f. 157V-W, 160A, 161P (mf).
C. s. Namkung, 2002: 293, f. 19.54a-b (mf).
C. s. Kim & Kim, 2002: 202, f. 37, 118, 225-226 (mf).
C. s. Kim & Cho, 2002: 266, f. 649-654 (mf).
C. s. Namkung, 2003: 295, f. 19.54a-b (mf).
C. s. Tanikawa, 2007c: 64, f. 130-132, 555-556 (mf).
C. s. Tanikawa, 2009: 439, f. 135-136 (mf).
C. s. Zhu & Zhang, 2011: 217, f. 154A-D (mf).
C. s. Yin et al., 2012: 662, f. 326a-f (mf).

mf senticauda Zhu & Wang, 1994....................China [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015703]
C. s. Zhu & Wang, in Zhu et al., 1994: 36, f. 11A-G (Dmf).
C. s. Yin et al., 1997d: 235, f. 148a-h (mf).
C. s. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 272, f. 157X, 158A, 160B, 162A (mf).
C. s. Zhu & Zhang, 2011: 218, f. 155A-E (mf).

mf serena Levi, 1999....................Chile, Argentina [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015704]
C. s. Levi, 1999: 364, f. 354-362 (Dmf).

f seriata (Thorell, 1881)....................Java [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015705]
Epeira s. Thorell, 1881: 121 (Df).
C. s. Roewer, 1942a: 757.

mf shinoharai Tanikawa & Ono, 1993....................Taiwan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015706]
C. s. Tanikawa & Ono, 1993: 60, f. 13-21 (Dmf).
C. s. Yin et al., 1997d: 263, f. 174a-i (mf).
C. shinohariai Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 272, f. 158B-C, 160C-D, 162B (mf).

mf sierrae Simon, 1870....................Europe to Georgia [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015707]
C. sierae Simon, 1870b: 305, pl. 3, f. 3 (Df, lapsus).
C. sierrae Simon, 1873a: 169, pl. 3, f. 3 (f).
Epeira incongrua O. P.-Cambridge, 1872a: 299 (Dmf).
C. s. Simon, 1874a: 40.
C. caudata L. Koch, 1876b: 287 (Dmf).
C. s. Kulczyn'ski, 1907: 574, pl. 21, f. 8-10 (mf).
C. s. Drensky, 1943: 225, f. 5 (f).
C. s. Brignoli, 1967f: 130, f. 1-5 (mf).
C. s. Levi, 1977a: 79, f. 30-33 (mf).
C. s. Levy, 1998a: 318, f. 24-32 (mf).
C. s. Marusik, 2009h: 14, f. 3, 5, 8 (m).
C. s. Lecigne, 2013: 187, f. 5D-E (m).

f simoni Tikader, 1982....................India [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015708]
C. s. Tikader, 1982a: 203, f. 399-403 (Df).

f simplicicauda Simon, 1900....................Hawaii [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015709]
C. s. Simon, 1900a: 479, pl. 16, f. 4 (Df).

f simplicicauda rufescens Simon, 1900....................Hawaii [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015710]
C. s. r. Simon, 1900a: 480 (Df).

mf spirifera Simon, 1889....................India, Pakistan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015711]
C. s. Simon, 1889i: 337 (Dmf).
C. s. Tikader, 1982a: 195, f. 377-381 (f).
C. s. Gajbe, 2007: 520, f. 292-295 (f).
C. s. Keswani, 2013: 72, f. 6A-J, 7A-G (mf).

f strandi Kolosváry, 1934....................Balkans [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015712]
C. s. Kolosváry, 1934b: 12, f. 1 (Df).

f tamanaco Levi, 1999....................Trinidad [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015714]
C. t. Levi, 1999: 374, f. 417-420 (Df).

mf tapetifaciens Hingston, 1932....................Panama to Argentina [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015715]
C. t. Hingston, 1932: 370 (Df).
C. filiobliqua Hingston, 1932: 371 (Dm).
Parazygia accentonotata Caporiacco, 1955: 345, f. 30a-b (Dm).
C. sumaqkay Archer, 1971: 159, f. 7 (Df).
C. t. Levi, 1999: 338, f. 23-25, 27-30, 181-194 (f, Sm).

f tardipes (Thorell, 1895)....................Myanmar [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015716]
Epeira t. Thorell, 1895: 193 (Df).
C. t. Reimoser, 1927a: 47.

f tardipes ignava (Thorell, 1895)....................Myanmar [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015717]
Epeira t. i. Thorell, 1895: 193 (Df).

mf tauraai Berland, 1933....................Marquesas Is. [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015718]
C. t. Berland, 1933b: 67, f. 53-54 (Df).
C. t. Berland, 1935: 59, f. 47-48 (Dm).

m teresa Levi, 1999....................Brazil [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015719]
C. t. Levi, 1999: 343, f. 218-222 (Dm).

f tricolor (Leardi, 1902)....................Philippines [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015720]
Epeira (C.) t. Leardi, 1902b: 120 (Df).

mf trilobata (Urquhart, 1885)....................Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015721]
Arachnura t. Urquhart, 1885: 37, pl. 9, f. 1, pl. 10, f. 9, 11 (Dmf).
Epeira anseripes Keyserling, 1887a: 174, pl. 15, f. 1-2 (mf, misidentified).
C. t. Dalmas, 1917a: 377.
C. t. Hickman, 1967: 60, f. 106-107 (mf).
C. t. Davies, 1988b: 300, f. 26 (mf).

f tripartita Tullgren, 1910....................East Africa [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015722]
C. t. Tullgren, 1910: 159, pl. 4, f. 99 (Df).

mf triquetra Simon, 1895....................Mexico, West Indies to Peru [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015723]
C. t. Simon, 1895a: 779, f. 851 (Df).
C. clara O. P.-Cambridge, 1898a: 248, pl. 31, f. 8 (Df).
C. clara F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 497, pl. 47, f. 13 (f).
C. t. Levi, 1999: 352, f. 275-283 (f, Dm, S).

f tropica Biswas & Raychaudhuri, 1998....................Bangladesh [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015724]
C. t. Biswas & Raychaudhuri, 1998a: 50, f. 14-19 (Df).

f tuberascens Simon, 1906....................India [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015725]
C. t. Simon, 1906c: 310 (Df).

mf turbinata (Walckenaer, 1841)....................USA to Panama, West Indies, Galapagos Is., Hawaii [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015726]
Epeira t. Walckenaer, 1841: 140 (Df).
Epeira glomosa Walckenaer, 1841: 143 (Df).
Epeira caudata Hentz, 1850: 23, pl. 3, f. 14 (Df).
Singa vanbruyssellii Becker, 1879a: 78, pl. 1, f. 4-6 (Dm).
Cyrtophora t. McCook, 1888a: 79 (S).
C. index O. P.-Cambridge, 1889d: 5, pl. 6, f. 6 (Df).
Singa van-bruysselii Keyserling, 1892: 288, pl. 15, f. 213 (m).
C. culta O. P.-Cambridge, 1893b: 112, pl. 14, f. 12 (Dm).
C. caudata Keyserling, 1893: 279, pl. 14, f. 206 (f, Dm).
C. t. McCook, 1894: 224, pl. 17, f. 5-6 (mf).
C. tuberculifera O. P.-Cambridge, 1898a: 269, pl. 36, f. 10 (Dm).
C. tuberculifera F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 493, pl. 47, f. 1 (m).
C. culta F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 493, pl. 47, f. 2 (m).
C. index F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 496, pl. 47, f. 12 (f).
Araneus glomosus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 294.
Araneus van bruysseli Petrunkevitch, 1911: 322.
C. nanna Ivie & Barrows, 1935: 18, pl. 7, f. 52-53 (Dmf).
Singa van-bruyselli Archer, 1941b: 17, pl. I, f. 5 (Df).
Singa vanbrusselli Kraus, 1955b: 26, f. 70-71 (m).
C. t. Levi, 1972a: 231 (S).
C. t. Levi, 1977a: 80, f. 20, 38-50 (mf, S).
C. t. Coddington, 1990: 14, f. 61 (m).
C. t. Breene et al., 1993: 105, f. 159A-C (mf).
C. t. Levi, 1999: 356, f. 314-321 (mf, S).
C. t. Levi, 2002: 555, f. 264-265 (m).
C. t. Dondale et al., 2003: 164, f. 347-354 (mf).

f turvo Levi, 1999....................Brazil [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015727]
C. t. Levi, 1999: 342, f. 204-207 (Df).

mf vallata (Keyserling, 1886)....................China, Korea, Taiwan, Japan to Australia [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015728]
Epeira v. Keyserling, 1886a: 149, pl. 12, f. 5 (Df).
C. v. Bösenberg & Strand, 1906: 203, pl. 15, f. 411 (f, Dm).
C. v. Chrysanthus, 1971: 23, f. 40-41, 117-119 (mf).
C. v. Yaginuma, 1986a: 121, f. 64.4 (mf).
C. v. Chikuni, 1989b: 85, f. 72 (f).
C. v. Tanikawa, 1990b: 2, f. 1-15 (mf).
C. v. Tanikawa, 1992b: 57, f. 166-180 (mf).
C. v. Yin et al., 1997d: 255, f. 166a-i (mf).
C. v. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 272, f. 158D-E, 160E-F, 162C (mf).
C. v. Namkung, 2002: 302, f. 19.63a-b (mf).
C. v. Kim & Kim, 2002: 202, f. 38, 119-120, 227-228 (mf).
C. v. Namkung, 2003: 304, f. 19.63a-b (mf).
C. v. Tanikawa, 2007c: 61, f. 116, 535-538 (mf).
C. v. Tanikawa, 2009: 439, f. 116-119 (mf).
C. v. Yin et al., 2012: 663, f. 327a-i (mf).

f vicente Levi, 1999....................Colombia, Brazil, Argentina [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015729]
C. v. Levi, 1999: 369, f. 387-390 (Df).

mf vieirae Levi, 1999....................Peru, Brazil [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015730]
C. v. Levi, 1999: 354, f. 284-293 (Dmf).

mf walckenaeri (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889)....................USA to Guyana, West Indies [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015731]
Turckheimia walckenaerii O. P.-Cambridge, 1889d: 47, pl. 8, f. 6 (Df).
Epeira w. Keyserling, 1892: 98, pl. 5, f. 85 (f, Dm).
C. w. McCook, 1894: 226, pl. 17, f. 1-2 (mf).
C. trifida F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 495, pl. 47, f. 7 (Df).
C. w. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 496, pl. 47, f. 9 (f).
C. w. Petrunkevitch, 1930a: 315, f. 188-189 (f).
C. cuadrituberosa Franganillo, 1936c: 84 (Dj; N.B.: "nicht zu deuten!" per Roewer, 1955c: 1454, sub C. quadrituberosa).
C. oculata Bryant, 1945a: 367 (S, rejected).
C. w. Levi, 1977a: 84, f. 64-77 (mf, removed from S, S).
C. w. Levi, 1999: 360, f. 38, 333-343 (mf, S).

m woyangchuan Zhang, Zhang & Zhu, 2010....................China [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:043931]
C. w. Zhang, Zhang & Zhu, 2010b: 696, f. 1a-c (Dm).

f xanthomelas Simon, 1900....................Hawaii [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015732]
C. x. Simon, 1900a: 480, pl. 16, f. 3 (Df).

f yaginumai Biswas & Raychaudhuri, 1998....................Bangladesh [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015733]
C. y. Biswas & Raychaudhuri, 1998a: 51, f. 20-26 (Df).

f zhangmuensis Hu & Li, 1987....................China [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015734]
C. z. Hu & Li, 1987b: 265, f. 12.1-5 (Df).
C. z. Yin et al., 1997d: 252, f. 163a-e (f).
C. z. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 272, f. 158F-H (f).
C. z. Hu, 2001: 456, f. 298.1-3 (f).