The World Spider Catalog, V15 by N. I. Platnick (c) 2000 - 2014 AMNH

Family: GNAPHOSIDAE

Gen. Gnaphosa Latreille, 1804 [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidergen:02428]

N.B.: considered a senior synonym of Cylphosa Chamberlin, 1933 by Ubick & Roth, 1973a: 4 and of Pterochroa Benoit, 1977c: 52 [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidergen:02466], type Gnaphosa funerea Dalmas, 1921 by Murphy, 2007: x, 8; erroneously considered a senior synonym of Drassina Grube, 1861 by Ovtsharenko & Marusik, 1988: 205.

Transferred to other genera:
G. canaricola Strand, 1911 -- see Scotognapha.
G. lindbergi Roewer, 1961 -- see Fedotovia.
G. rufa Denis, 1958 -- see Sosticus.
G. scutata (Mello-Leitão, 1939) -- see Urozelotes.

In synonymy:
G. acuaria Schenkel, 1963 = G. licenti Schenkel, 1953 (Song, 1987: 338, sub G. denisi).
G. adriatica Kulczyn'ski, 1897 = G. dolosa Herman, 1879 (Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 9).
G. adspersa (Grube, 1861, T from Pterotricha) = G. kompirensis Bösenberg & Strand, 1906 (Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 35, contra Wesolowska, 1988b: 411, who placed it as a S of G. muscorum; younger name retained under ICZN Art. 79b).
G. aeditua Schenkel, 1963 = G. licenti Schenkel, 1963 (Song, 1987: 339, sub G. denisi).
G. ajdahania Roewer, 1961 = G. haarlovi Denis, 1958 (Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 16).
G. alberti Schenkel, 1963 = G. kansuensis Schenkel, 1936 (Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 34).
G. annamita Simon, 1908 = G. kompirensis Bösenberg & Strand, 1906 (Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 37).
G. auriceps Schenkel, 1953 = G. mongolica Simon, 1895 (Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 46).
G. baotianmanensis Hu, Wang & Wang, 1991 = G. hastata Fox, 1937 (Song, Zhu & Zhang, 2004: 99).
G. barroisi Simon, 1892 = G. dolosa Herman, 1879 (Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 9, but see Levy, 1995: 977).
G. berlandi Schenkel, 1963 = G. mandschurica Schenkel, 1963 (Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 46).
G. bilineata L. Koch, 1879 = G. microps Holm, 1939 (Holm, 1973: 103, who suppressed the older name for lack of use).
G. bonneti Schenkel, 1963 = G. sinensis Simon, 1880 (Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 71).
G. braendegaardi Schenkel, 1963 = G. mandschurica Schenkel, 1963 (Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 46).
G. chaffanjoni Schenkel, 1963 = G. mongolica Simon, 1895 (Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 46).
G. charitonowi Schenkel, 1963 = G. mandschurica Schenkel, 1963 (Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 46).
G. corifera Schenkel, 1963 = G. mongolica Simon, 1895 (Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 46).
G. davidi Schenkel, 1963 = G. kompirensis Bösenberg & Strand, 1906 (Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 37).
G. denisi Schenkel, 1963 = G. licenti Schenkel, 1953 (Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 53).
G. distincta Banks, 1898 = G. fontinalis Keyserling, 1887 (Platnick & Shadab, 1975a: 54, contra Ubick & Roth, 1973a: 4).
G. diversa (Blackwall, 1871, T from Drassodes) = G. sericata (L. Koch, 1866) (Ubick & Roth, 1973a: 4, but see Platnick & Shadab, 1975a: 7).
G. falculata Schenkel, 1963 = G. kansuensis Schenkel, 1936 (Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 34).
G. gigantea Keyserling, 1887 = G. muscorum (L. Koch, 1866) (Ubick & Roth, 1973a: 4, after Gertsch, 1935a: 28).
G. glandifera Schenkel, 1963 = G. mandschurica Schenkel, 1963 (Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 45).
G. gosoga Chamberlin, 1928 = G. californica Banks, 1904 (Platnick & Shadab, 1975a: 57).
G. holmi Tullgren, 1942 (N.B.: identical replacement name provided by Lohmander, 1942: 47) = G. orites Chamberlin, 1922 (Holm, 1950: 129).
G. holmi Schenkel, 1963 = G. mandschurica Schenkel, 1963 (Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 45).
G. inconspicua (Bryant, 1948, T from Poecilochroa) = G. sericata (L. Koch, 1866) (Platnick & Shadab, 1981e: 7).
G. intermedia Holm, 1939 = G. sticta Kulczyn'ski, 1908 (Ovtsharenko & Marusik, 1988: 209).
G. koreae Strand, 1907 = G. sinensis Simon, 1880 (Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 71).
G. kratochvili Schenkel, 1963 = G. sinensis Simon, 1880 (Song, 1987: 339).
G. labradorensis Fox, 1938 = G. orites Chamberlin, 1922 (Ubick & Roth, 1973a: 4).
G. laeta Kulczyn'ski, 1897 = G. alpica Simon, 1878 (Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 63).
G. lesserti Schenkel, 1963 = G. muscorum (L. Koch, 1866) (Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 42).
G. martae Schenkel, 1963 = G. sinensis Simon, 1880 (Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 71).
G. mima Chamberlin, 1933 = G. borea Kulczyn'ski, 1908 (Ovtsharenko & Marusik, 1988: 207).
G. mulaiki Chamberlin, 1936 = G. clara (Keyserling, 1887) (Platnick & Shadab, 1975a: 12).
G. nigra Kulczyn'ski, 1926 = G. nigerrima L. Koch, 1877 (Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 81).
G. orchymonti Giltay, 1932 = G. dolosa Herman, 1879 (Bosmans, 2013: 182).
G. peon Chamberlin, 1925 = G. sericata (L. Koch, 1866) (Platnick & Shadab, 1975a: 61).
G. proxima Kulczyn'ski, 1908 = G. gracilior Kulczyn'ski, 1901 (Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 49).
G. pseudolapponica Strand, 1904 = G. lapponum (L. Koch, 1866) (Aakra, 2009: 18).
G. pseudomongolica Schenkel, 1963 = G. gracilior Kulczyn'ski, 1901 (Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 49, contra Hu & Wu, 1989: 271).
G. punctata Kulczyn'ski, 1901 = G. mongolica Simon, 1895 (Loksa, 1965: 23, sub G. spinosa).
G. roeweri Schenkel, 1963 = G. kansuensis Schenkel, 1936 (Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 34).
G. rudolfi Schenkel, 1963 = G. stoliczkai O. P.-Cambridge, 1885 (Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 12).
G. schensiensis Schenkel, 1963 = G. sinensis Simon, 1880 (Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 71).
G. septentrionalis Fox, 1938 = G. clara (Keyserling, 1887) (Platnick & Shadab, 1975a: 12).
G. silvicola Kamura, 1988 = G. potanini Simon, 1895 (Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 32).
G. similis Kulczyn'ski, 1926 = G. muscorum (L. Koch, 1866) (Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 42).
G. soror Herman, 1879 = G. lugubris (C. L. Koch, 1839) (Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 20).
G. spadicea Simon, 1914 = G. dolosa Herman, 1879 (Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 9).
G. spinosa Kulczyn'ski, 1897 = G. mongolica Simon, 1895 (Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 46).
G. stuxbergi Holm, 1970 = G. orites Chamberlin, 1922 (Ovtsharenko & Marusik, 1988: 208).
G. subparvula Fox, 1938 = G. borea Kulczyn'ski, 1908 (Platnick & Shadab, 1975a: 39, sub G. mima).
G. suchuana Chamberlin, 1924 = G. kompirensis Bösenberg & Strand, 1906 (Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 37).
G. suspecta Herman, 1879 = G. moesta Thorell, 1875 (Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 31).
G. taegensis Paik, 1989 = G. licenti Schenkel, 1953 (Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 53).
G. tarimuensis Hu, 1989 = G. gracilior Kulczyn'ski, 1901 (Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 49).
G. texana Chamberlin, 1922 = G. fontinalis Keyserling, 1887 (Platnick & Shadab, 1975a: 54).
G. turkmenica Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992 = G. ukrainica Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992 (Kovblyuk, 2005b: 136).

Homonyms replaced:
G. caucasica Mcheidze, 1997 -- see G. mcheidzeae.
G. punctata Tullgren, 1942 -- see G. muscorum gaunitzi.

Nomina dubia:
G. abnormis Banks, 1898b: 222, pl. 13, f. 15 (f, Mexico) -- Platnick & Shadab, 1975a: 7.
G. bicolor (Hentz, 1847: 456, pl. 24, f. 4, f, USA, originally in Herpyllus) -- Platnick & Shadab, 1975a: 7.
G. crassipes Schenkel, 1936b: 262 (j, Mongolia) -- Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 4.
G. decepta Banks, 1898b: 221, pl. 13, f. 14 (f, Mexico) -- Platnick & Shadab, 1975a: 7.
G. expilator Drensky, 1929: 12, 64, pl. 1, f. 10-11 (j, Balkans, also as G. explicatrix Roewer, 1955c: 362, emendation of a lapsus, G. explicator) -- Deltshev, 2003: 143, f. 28-29.
G. fumosa (C. L. Koch, 1843: 118, f. 832, f, Europe, originally in Pythonissa) -- Grimm, 1985: 287.
G. humilis Banks, 1892a: 19, pl. 1, f. 9 (f, USA) -- Platnick & Shadab, 1975a: 7.
G. immatura Strand, 1942: 396 (replacement name for G. suspecta O. P.-Cambridge, 1879e: 191, j, England, preoccupied by Herman, 1879) -- Bristowe, 1941: 529.
G. multispinosa Schenkel, 1936b: 261 (j, Mongolia) -- Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 4.
G. nana (C. L. Koch, 1843: 119, f. 833, f, Germany, originally in Pythonissa) -- Grimm, 1985: 287.
G. nigella L. Koch, 1878b: 39, pl. 1, f. 1 (f, Caucasus) -- Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 4.
G. subrufula Strand, 1907m: 394 (m, Russia) -- Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 4.
G. thorelli (Lebert, 1877: 236, mf, Switzerland) -- Grimm, 1985: 287.

Nomen nudum:
G. hortula Roewer, 1955 -- see G. hastata.

mf aborigena Tyschchenko, 1965....................Kazakhstan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027187]
G. a. Tyschchenko, 1965: 697, f. 2 (Df).
G. a. Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 84, f. 246, 301-304 (f, Dm; N.B.: m of Ponomarev, 1981 =G. dolosa).

mf akagiensis Hayashi, 1994....................Japan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027188]
G. a. Hayashi, 1994b: 156, f. 1-6 (Dmf).
G. a. Kamura, 2009: 488, f. 53-56 (mf).

mf alacris Simon, 1878....................France, Italy, Croatia, Morocco [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027189]
G. a. Simon, 1878a: 191 (Dmf).
G. kulczynskii Damin, 1896: 343 (Df).
G. a. Simon, 1914a: 194, 202, 225, f. 421, 449 (mf).
G. a. Denis, 1935d: 114, f. 6 (f).
G. a. Di Franco, 1992: 216, f. 1-4 (mf).
G. a. Pesarini, 2000: 383, f. 12-13 (mf).
G. a. Kovblyuk, 2005b: 137, f. 14-17 (mf).

mf alpica Simon, 1878....................Europe [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027190]
G. a. Simon, 1878a: 183 (Df).
G. laeta Kulczyn'ski, in Chyzer & Kulczyn'ski, 1897: 185, pl. 7, f. 19 (Df).
G. molesta O. P.-Cambridge, 1898c: 489, f. 1-2 (Df).
G. a. Lessert, 1910b: 79, f. 66 (f).
G. a. Simon, 1914a: 203, 224, f. 452 (f).
G. a. Grimm, 1985: 49, f. 77-78 (f).
G. a. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 426, f. 1122 (f).
G. a. Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 61, f. 221-224 (f, m had been misidentified as G. modestior, S).

mf altudona Chamberlin, 1922....................USA [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027191]
G. a. Chamberlin, 1922: 167 (Df).
G. a. Platnick & Shadab, 1975a: 30, f. 59-64 (f, Dm).
G. a. Breene et al., 1993: 88, f. 108A-B (mf).

mf antipola Chamberlin, 1933....................USA, Canada [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027192]
G. a. Chamberlin, 1933a: 4, f. 5-7 (Dmf).
G. a. Platnick & Shadab, 1975a: 52, f. 117-122 (mf).
G. a. Platnick & Dondale, 1992: 172, f. 260-263 (mf).

m artaensis Wunderlich, 2011....................Mallorca [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:043972]
G. a. Wunderlich, 2011: 53, f. 146-147 (Dm).

mf atramentaria Simon, 1878....................France [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027193]
G. a. Simon, 1878a: 169 (Dmf).
G. a. Simon, 1914a: 196, 202, 223, f. 424-426, 448 (mf).

mf azerbaidzhanica Tuneva & Esyunin, 2003....................Azerbaijan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:039000]
G. a. Tuneva & Esyunin, 2003b: 277, f. 1-4 (Dmf).

mf badia (L. Koch, 1866)....................Europe to Azerbaijan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027194]
Pythonissa b. L. Koch, 1866: 22, pl. 1, f. 15 (Df).
G. b. L. Koch, 1872b: 305 (Dm).
G. plebeja Thorell, 1875a: 100 (Df).
G. plebeja Thorell, 1875c: 100 (Df).
G. b. Kulczyn'ski, 1898: 61, pl. 1, f. 13 (f).
G. b. Lessert, 1910b: 76, f. 67-68 (mf).
G. b. Simon, 1914a: 194, 198, 224, f. 422, 436 (mf).
G. b. Reimoser, 1937a: 10, f. 10, 14 (mf).
G. b. Buchar, 1962: 4, f. 1A-D (mf).
G. b. Tyschchenko, 1971: 92, f. 180 (m).
G. b. Miller, 1971: 78, pl. LXI, f. 14-15 (mf).
G. b. Izmailova, 1977: 70, f. 1 (f).
G. b. Polenec, 1982: 65, f. 5 (m).
G. b. Grimm, 1985: 49, f. 29-33 (mf).
G. b. Izmailova, 1989: 101, f. 81 (f).
G. b. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 422, f. 1118 (mf).
G. b. Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 66, f. 233-236 (mf).

f balearicola Strand, 1942....................Balearic Is. [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027195]
G. spinosa Simon, 1914a: 200 (Df; preoccupied).
G. b. Strand, 1942: 395 (replacement name).

mf banini Marusik & Koponen, 2001....................Russia, Mongolia [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:038057]
G. b. Marusik & Koponen, 2001b: 135, f. 1-3, 9-10 (Dmf).
G. b. Fomichev & Marusik, 2011b: 119, f. 9-13 (mf).

f basilicata Simon, 1882....................Italy [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027197]
G. b. Simon, 1882a: 37 (Df).

f belyaevi Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992....................Mongolia [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027198]
G. b. Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 39, f. 137-138 (Df).

mf betpaki Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992....................Russia, Kazakhstan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027199]
G. b. Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 5, f. 11-14 (Dmf).
G. b. Tuneva & Esyunin, 2003a: 230, f. 26 (m).
G. b. Kovblyuk, 2005b: 134, f. 6-7 (f).

mf bicolor (Hahn, 1833)....................Europe to Ukraine, Georgia [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027200]
Drassus b. Hahn, 1833a: 123, f. 94 (Df).
Filistata femoralis Wider, 1834: 201, pl. 14, f. 5 (Dm).
Pythonissa fuliginea C. L. Koch, 1837b: 16 (D).
Pythonissa tricolor C. L. Koch, 1839a: 67, f. 479 (Df).
Drassus tricolor Walckenaer, 1841: 486.
Pythonissa fuliginea C. L. Koch, 1843: 120, f. 834 (Df).
Pythonissa b. C. L. Koch, 1850: 28.
Drassus femoralis Westring, 1851: 47.
Pythonissa femoralis Westring, 1861: 352.
Pythonissa tricolor L. Koch, 1866: 24, pl. 1, f. 16-18 (f, Dm).
G. b. Thorell, 1871a: 191.
G. b. Menge, 1872: 301, pl. 54, f. 173 (mf).
G. b. Chyzer & Kulczyn'ski, 1897: 184, pl. 7, f. 17 (mf).
G. b. Bösenberg, 1902: 316, pl. 30, f. 468 (mf).
G. b. Simon, 1914a: 192, 198, 224, f. 413, 435 (mf).
G. b. Reimoser, 1937a: 9, f. 8, 13 (mf).
G. b. Palmgren, 1943: 86, f.
G. b. Tullgren, 1946: 83, f. 25, 26A, pl. 13, f. 166-169 (mf).
G. b. Tyschchenko, 1971: 92, f. 179 (m).
G. b. Miller, 1971: 80, pl. VI, f. 1-2 (mf).
G. b. Grimm, 1985: 52, f. 34-36 (mf).
G. b. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 420, f. 1107 (mf).
G. b. Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 61, f. 217-220 (mf).
G. b. Mcheidze, 1997: 112, f. 135 (m).
G. b. Almquist, 2006: 396, f. 341a-f (mf).

mf bithynica Kulczyn'ski, 1903....................Crete, Turkey [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027201]
G. b. Kulczyn'ski, 1903b: 641, pl. 1, f. 6-7, 9-10 (Dmf).
G. b. Chatzaki, Thaler & Mylonas, 2002a: 582, f. 39-42 (mf).

mf borea Kulczyn'ski, 1908....................Holarctic [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027202]
G. b. Kulczyn'ski, 1908b: 9, pl. 1, f. 6 (Df).
G. mima Chamberlin, 1933a: 2, f. 3-4 (Dm).
G. subparvula Fox, 1938a: 230, pl. 2, f. 5 (Df).
G. b. Holm, 1970: 206, f. 39 (f).
G. mima Platnick & Shadab, 1975a: 38, f. 87-93 (m, Sf).
G. orites Platnick & Shadab, 1975a: 46, f. 109-110 (f, misidentified).
G. b. Ovtsharenko & Marusik, 1988: 207, f. 7-11 (f, Sm).
G. b. Izmailova, 1989: 101, f. 82 (f).
G. b. Platnick & Dondale, 1992: 181, f. 276-279 (mf).
G. b. Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 57, f. 187-188, 195-198 (mf).
G. b. Ovtsharenko & Marusik, 1996: 115, pl. 1, f. 4, pl. 3, f. 5, 15 (mf).
G. b. Marusik & Koponen, 2001b: 135, f. 8 (m).
G. b. Paquin & Dupérré, 2003: 76, f. 655-657 (mf).

mf brumalis Thorell, 1875....................USA, Canada, Alaska [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027203]
G. b. Thorell, 1875d: 497 (Df).
G. scudderi Thorell, 1877c: 491 (Df).
G. b. Emerton, 1890: 175, pl. 4, f. 5 (f, Dm).
G. b. Chamberlin, 1933a: 3, f. 1-2 (m).
G. b. Kaston, 1948: 346, f. 1156-1157, 1185 (mf).
G. b. Platnick & Shadab, 1975a: 41, f. 94-100 (mf).
G. b. Platnick & Dondale, 1992: 184, f. 280-283 (mf).
G. b. Paquin & Dupérré, 2003: 76, f. 658-660 (mf).

mf californica Banks, 1904....................USA, Canada [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027204]
G. c. Banks, 1904b: 335, pl. 38, f. 10 (Df).
G. gosoga Chamberlin & Gertsch, 1928: 178 (Dm).
Cylphosa gosoga Chamberlin, 1933a: 2.
G. c. Platnick & Shadab, 1975a: 57, f. 85-86, 135-138 (f, Sm).
G. c. Platnick & Dondale, 1992: 166, f. 248-251 (mf).

f campanulata Zhang & Song, 2001....................China [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:039001]
G. c. Zhang & Song, 2001: 78, f. 1A-D (Df).
G. c. Song, Zhu & Zhang, 2004: 93, f. 50A-D (f).

mf cantabrica Simon, 1914....................Spain, France [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027205]
G. c. Simon, 1914a: 197, 203, f. 454 (Dmf).

mf caucasica Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992....................Russia [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027206]
G. c. Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 26, f. 83-86 (Dmf).

f chiapas Platnick & Shadab, 1975....................Mexico [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027207]
G. c. Platnick & Shadab, 1975a: 32, f. 77-78 (Df).

f chihuahua Platnick & Shadab, 1975....................Mexico [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027208]
G. c. Platnick & Shadab, 1975a: 28, f. 75-76 (Df).

mf chola Ovtsharenko & Marusik, 1988....................Russia, Mongolia, China [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027209]
G. c. Ovtsharenko & Marusik, 1988: 209, f. 18-19, 21, 23, 25 (Dmf).
G. c. Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 58, f. 199-202 (mf).
G. c. Ovtsharenko & Marusik, 1996: 118, pl. 3, f. 2, 6, 10 (mf).
G. c. Marusik & Koponen, 2001b: 138, f. 6-7 (m).
G. c. Tang, Song & Zhang, 2001a: 16, f. 4-6 (f).
G. c. Song, Zhu & Zhang, 2004: 94, f. 51A-D (mf).

mf clara (Keyserling, 1887)....................North America [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027210]
Pythonissa c. Keyserling, 1887b: 429, pl. 6, f. 6 (Dm).
Callilepis c. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 776.
G. mulaiki Chamberlin, 1936b: 6, f. 24 (Df).
G. septentrionalis Fox, 1938a: 228, pl. 1, f. 2, 8 (Dmf).
G. c. Ubick & Roth, 1973a: 3 (Tm from Pterotricha per Roewer).
G. c. Platnick & Shadab, 1975a: 12, f. 11-16 (m, Sf).
G. c. Platnick & Dondale, 1992: 168, f. 252-255 (mf).

f corticola Simon, 1914....................France [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027211]
G. c. Simon, 1914a: 199, 225, f. 438 (Df).

mf cumensis Ponomarev, 1981....................Ukraine, Russia, Mongolia [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027212]
G. c. Ponomarev, 1981: 57, f. 3 (Df).
G. c. Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 10, f. 9-10, 23-26 (f, Dm).
G. c. Kovblyuk, 2005b: 139, f. 18-28 (mf).

f cyrenaica (Caporiacco, 1949)....................Libya [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027213]
Pterotricha c. Caporiacco, 1949b: 118, f. 4 (Df).
G. c. Levy, 1995: 945 (Tf from Pterotricha).

mf danieli Miller & Buchar, 1972....................Afghanistan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027214]
G. d. Miller & Buchar, 1972: 383, f. 1-7 (Dmf).

f dege Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992....................Kyrgyzstan, China [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027215]
G. d. Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 72, f. 259-260 (Df).
G. d. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 448, f. 261B (f).
G. d. Song, Zhu & Zhang, 2004: 95, f. 52A-B (f).

mf dentata Platnick & Shadab, 1975....................USA [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027216]
G. d. Platnick & Shadab, 1975a: 18, f. 35-40 (Dmf).

m deserta Ponomarev & Dvadnenko, 2011....................Russia [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:044626]
G. d. Ponomarev & Dvadnenko, in Ponomarev et al., 2011: 126, f. 1a-b (Dm).

mf dolosa Herman, 1879....................Palearctic [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027217]
G. d. Herman, 1879: 191, 362, pl. 7, f. 167 (Dmf).
G. barroisi Simon, 1892b: 81 (Df).
G. d. Chyzer & Kulczyn'ski, 1897: 186, pl. 7, f. 24 (f).
G. adriatica Kulczyn'ski, in Chyzer & Kulczyn'ski, 1897: 186, pl. 7, f. 26 (Df).
G. barroisi Kulczyn'ski, 1908c: 53, pl. 2, f. 8 (Dm).
G. spadicea Simon, 1914a: 193, 223, f. 416 (Dm).
G. orchymonti Giltay, 1932: 31, f. 20-21 (Dmf) [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027267].
G. orchymonti Giltay, 1933: 7, pl. 4, f. 2-3 (mf).
G. spadicea Soyer, 1964: 355, f. 1a-b (Df).
G. aborigena Ponomarev, 1981: 55, f. 1 (m, misidentified).
G. d. Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 9, f. 7-8, 19-22 (mf, S).
G. barroisi Levy, 1995: 977, f. 139-142 (mf; N.B.: rejected S of this name with G. d. but provided no illustrations of the latter to document that decision).
G. d. Esyunin & Efimik, 1997: 107, f. 8-9 (f).
G. d. Chatzaki, Thaler & Mylonas, 2002b: 611, f. 17-18 (f).
G. d. Kovblyuk, 2005b: 151 (S, not accepted, see note under G. saurica).
G. d. Bosmans, 2013: 182 (S).

f eskovi Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992....................Kazakhstan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027218]
G. e. Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 83, f. 291-292 (Df).

mf eucalyptus Ghafoor & Beg, 2002....................Pakistan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:040606]
G. e. Ghafoor & Beg, 2002b: 528, f. 1A-D (Dmf).

mf fagei Schenkel, 1963....................Kazakhstan, China [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027220]
G. f. Schenkel, 1963: 82, f. 46 (Df).
G. f. Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 12, f. 33-34, 37-40 (f, Dm).
G. f. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 448, f. 260O, 261C (mf).
G. f. Song, Zhu & Zhang, 2004: 96, f. 53A-D (mf).

f fallax Herman, 1879....................Hungary [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027221]
G. f. Herman, 1879: 196, 364, pl. 8, f. 173 (Df).

mf fontinalis Keyserling, 1887....................USA, Mexico [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027222]
G. f. Keyserling, 1887b: 426, pl. 6, f. 4 (Df).
G. americana Banks, 1896e: 61 (Df).
G. distincta Banks, 1898b: 222, pl. 13, f. 13 (Df).
G. texana Chamberlin, 1922: 157 (Dm).
G. f. Kaston, 1938c: 180, pl. 8, f. 15-17 (f, Dm).
G. f. Kaston, 1948: 345, f. 1178-1180 (mf).
G. f. Platnick & Shadab, 1975a: 54, f. 127-134, 150 (mf, S).
G. f. Heiss & Allen, 1986: 13, f. 23-24 (mf).
G. f. Platnick & Dondale, 1992: 163, f. 244-247 (mf).

mf funerea (Dalmas, 1921)....................St. Helena [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027775]
G. lugubris O. P.-Cambridge, 1873e: 212, pl. 24, f. 2 (Dm, preoccupied).
G. f. Dalmas, 1921: 326 (replacement name).
Pterochroa f. Benoit, 1977c: 52, f. 18a-f (Tm from Gnaphosa, Df).

mf gracilior Kulczyn'ski, 1901....................Russia, Mongolia, China [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027223]
G. g. Kulczyn'ski, 1901b: 325, pl. 12, f. 2 (Df).
G. proxima Kulczyn'ski, 1908b: 9, pl. 1, f. 5 (Df).
G. pseudomongolica Schenkel, 1963: 79, f. 44 (Df).
G. proxima Ovtsharenko & Marusik, 1988: 208, f. 15 (f).
G. proxima Izmailova, 1989: 104, f. 86 (f).
G. tarimuensis Hu, 1989: 98, f. 1-2 (Df).
G. tarimuensis Hu & Wu, 1989: 272, f. 221.1-2 (f).
G. g. Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 49, f. 169-170, 173-176 (f, Dm, S).
G. potanini Marusik & Logunov, 1995b: 186, f. 37 (f, misidentified).
G. g. Marusik & Logunov, 1995b: 188, f. 40-46 (mf).
G. proxima Marusik & Logunov, 1995b: 189, f. 47-50 (mf).
G. proxima Ovtsharenko & Marusik, 1996: 117, pl. 3, f. 16 (f).
G. g. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 448, f. 260P, 261D (mf).
G. tarimuensis Hu, 2001: 253, f. 142.1-2 (f).
G. g. Song, Zhu & Zhang, 2004: 97, f. 54A-D (mf).

mf haarlovi Denis, 1958....................Central Asia [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027224]
G. h. Denis, 1958b: 94, f. 17-20 (Dmf).
G. ajdahania Roewer, 1961c: 5, f. 4-5, 60 (Df).
G. h. Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 16, f. 45-48 (mf, S).

f halophila Esyunin & Efimik, 1997....................Russia [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027225]
G. h. Esyunin & Efimik, 1997: 105, f. 1-2 (Df).

mf hastata Fox, 1937....................China, Korea [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027226]
G. h. Fox, 1937a: 247, f. 1 (Df).
G. hortula Roewer, 1955c: 363 (N.B.: apparently an erroneous second listing of G. hastata).
G. koreae Paik, 1989: 9, f. 30-41 (mf, misidentified).
G. baotianmanensis Hu, Wang & Wang, 1991: 45, f. 22-23 (Dm).
G. h. Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 73, f. 263-266 (mf).
G. h. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 449, f. 260Q, 261E (mf).
G. h. Namkung, 2002: 473, f. 37.14a-b (mf).
G. h. Namkung, 2003: 476, f. 37.14a-b (mf).
G. h. Song, Zhu & Zhang, 2004: 99, f. 55A-D (mf, S).
G. h. Jung et al., 2005: 177, f. 59, 117 (mf).
G. h. Zhu & Zhang, 2011: 390, f. 278A-D (mf).
G. h. Yin et al., 2012: 1167, f. 621a-g (mf).

mf hirsutipes Banks, 1901....................USA, Mexico [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027227]
G. h. Banks, 1901b: 573, pl. 33, f. 4 (Df).
G. h. Fox, 1938a: 228, pl. 1, f. 9 (Dm).
G. h. Platnick & Shadab, 1975a: 13, f. 17-22 (mf).

mf iberica Simon, 1878....................Spain [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027228]
G. i. Simon, 1878a: 176 (Dmf).
G. i. Simon, 1914a: 194, 201, 224, f. 418-420, 444 (mf).
G. lapponum Emerit & Ledoux, 2004a: 17, f. 4A-D (mf, proposed S of G. iberica under this name, without examination of type material).

mf ilika Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992....................Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027229]
G. i. Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 82, f. 287-288, 297-300 (Dmf).
G. i. Marusik & Koponen, 2001b: 139, f. 11-13 (m).

mf inconspecta Simon, 1878....................Palearctic [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027230]
G. i. Simon, 1878a: 187 (Dm).
G. i. Simon, 1914a: 196, 202, 225, f. 427-428, 447 (m, Df).
G. i. Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 30, f. 99-102 (mf).
G. i. Marusik & Logunov, 1995b: 188, f. 63-64 (f).
G. i. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 449, f. 260R, 261F (mf).
G. i. Breuss, 2001: 187, f. 10-13 (mf).
G. i. Song, Zhu & Zhang, 2004: 100, f. 56A-D (mf).

mf jodhpurensis Tikader & Gajbe, 1977....................India, China [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027231]
G. j. Tikader & Gajbe, 1977b: 45, f. 2A-E (Df).
G. j. Tikader, 1982b: 338, f. 99-104 (f).
G. j. Hu & Li, 1987a: 359, f. 29.1-3 (f).
G. j. Hu, 2001: 248, f. 138.3 (f).
G. j. Gajbe, 2005d: 116, f. 1-2 (Dm).
G. j. Gajbe, 2007: 458, f. 77-83 (mf).

mf jucunda Thorell, 1875....................Russia, Ukraine [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027232]
G. j. Thorell, 1875a: 85 (Df).
G. j. Thorell, 1875c: 104 (Df).
Pythonissa j. Simon, 1878a: 205.
Pterotricha j. Roewer, 1955c: 375.
G. j. Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 19, f. 55-56 (Tf from Pterotricha).
G. j. Ponomarev & Kovblyuk, 2009: 8, f. 19-22 (f, Dm).

f kailana Tikader, 1966....................India [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027233]
G. k. Tikader, 1966e: 438, f. 1a-d (Df).
G. k. Tikader, 1982b: 330, f. 79-82.

mf kamurai Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992....................Japan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027234]
G. alberti Kamura, 1988: 7, f. 14-19 (f, Dm, misidentified).
G. k. Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 33, f. 115-118 (Dmf).
G. k. Kamura, 2009: 488, f. 57-60 (mf).

f kankhalae Biswas & Roy, 2008....................India [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:042443]
G. k. Biswas & Roy, 2008: 53, f. 3-15 (Df).

mf kansuensis Schenkel, 1936....................Russia, China, Korea [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027235]
G. k. Schenkel, 1936b: 26, f. 6 (Df).
G. alberti Schenkel, 1963: 86, f. 49 (Df).
G. falculata Schenkel, 1963: 92, f. 53a-c (Dm).
G. roeweri Schenkel, 1963: 94, f. 54a-c (Dm).
G. roeweri Tu & Zhu, 1986: 91, f. 16-19 (m, Df).
G. kompirensis Zhang, 1987: 177, f. 149.1-4 (mf, misidentified).
G. alberti Paik, 1989: 6, f. 14-18 (f).
G. kompirensis Paik, 1989: 4, f. 2-4 (mf, misidentified).
G. kompirensis Chen & Gao, 1990: 144, f. 182a-b (mf, misidentified).
G. k. Tang & Song, 1992a: 248, f. 1-4 (f, Dm).
G. k. Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 34, f. 119-124 (mf, S).
G. k. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 449, f. 261H, J (mf).
G. k. Namkung, 2002: 475, f. 37.16a-c (mf).
G. k. Namkung, 2003: 478, f. 37.16a-c (mf).
G. k. Song, Zhu & Zhang, 2004: 102, f. 57A-D (mf).
G. k. Jung et al., 2005: 178, f. 60, 85, 118 (mf).
G. k. Zhu & Zhang, 2011: 391, f. 279A-D (mf).

f ketmer Tuneva, 2005....................Kazakhstan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:040607]
G. k. Tuneva, 2005: 320, f. 4-5 (Df).

mf kompirensis Bösenberg & Strand, 1906....................Russia, China, Korea, Taiwan, Japan, Vietnam [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027236]
Drassus adspersus Grube, 1861: 170 (Dmf: N.B.: suppressed for lack of usage).
G. k. Bösenberg & Strand, 1906: 123, pl. 16, f. 481 (Df; N.B.: specific name was also spelled compirensis in original description, but kompirensis was selected by Kamura, 1988: 4, because it correctly refers to the type locality).
G. aannamita Simon, 1909e: 78 (Df).
G. suchuana Chamberlin, 1924a: 4, pl. 1, f. 1 (Df).
G. compirensis Saito, 1939: 5, f. 2(1) (f).
G. compirensis Saito, 1959: 120, f. 150a-e (f).
G. k. Yaginuma, 1960: 122, f. 100.3 (f).
G. davidi Schenkel, 1963: 87, f. 50 (Df).
G. k. Yaginuma, 1971: 122, f. 100.3 (f).
G. k. Paik, 1978e: 419, f. 189.1-4 (mf).
G. k. Hu, 1984: 279, f. 294.1-4 (mf).
G. k. Guo, 1985: 142, f. 2-76.1-4 (mf).
G. k. Yaginuma, 1986a: 187, f. 104.1 (mf).
G. k. Kamura, 1988: 4, f. 1-4, 7-13 (mf).
G. k. Paik, 1989: 4, f. 1, 5-13 (mf, not f. 2-4).
G. k. Chikuni, 1989b: 119, f. 9 (mf).
G. k. Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 35, f. 125-126, 129-132 (mf, S).
G. k. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 449, f. 261H, J (mf).
G. k. Namkung, 2002: 474, f. 37.15a-b (mf).
G. k. Namkung, 2003: 477, f. 37.15a-b (mf).
G. k. Song, Zhu & Zhang, 2004: 103, f. 58A-D (mf).
G. k. Jung et al., 2005: 179, f. 17-18, 61, 86, 119-120 (mf).
G. k. Kamura, 2009: 488, f. 49-52 (mf).
G. k. Zhu & Zhang, 2011: 392, f. 280A-D (mf).
G. k. Yin et al., 2012: 1169, f. 622a-g (mf).

mf kuldzha Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992....................Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027237]
G. k. Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 15, f. 35-36, 41-44 (Dmf).

f kurchak Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992....................Kyrgyzstan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027238]
G. k. Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 40, f. 139-140 (Df).

mf lapponum (L. Koch, 1866)....................Europe to Central Asia [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027239]
Pythonissa l. L. Koch, 1866: 33, pl. 2, f. 22-25 (Dmf).
G. l. Thorell, 1871a: 193.
G. islandica Sørensen, 1898: 222 (Dmf).
G. pseudolapponica Strand, 1904a: 6 (Df) [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027282].
G. l. Schenkel, 1928: 18, f. 1 (mf).
G. l. Palmgren, 1943: 87, f.
G. l. Tullgren, 1946: 82, f. 24B, pl. 13, f. 162-164 (mf).
G. islandica Braendegaard, 1946: 54, f. 33-34 (mf).
G. l. Braendegaard, 1958: 6, f. 2 (f).
G. l. Grimm, 1985: 55, f. 51, 68-69 (mf).
G. l. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 424, f. 1121 (mf).
G. l. Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 27, f. 87-90 (mf).
G. l. Agnarsson, 1996: 33, f. 12A-B (mf).
G. l. Pesarini, 2000: 383, f. 14 (m).
G. l. Emerit & Ledoux, 2004a: 17, f. 4A-D (mf, see note under G. iberica).
G. l. Almquist, 2006: 397, f. 342a-e (mf).
G. l. Aakra, 2009: 18 (S).

f lapponum inermis Strand, 1899....................Norway [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027240]
G. l. i. Strand, 1899: 49 (Df).

mf leporina (L. Koch, 1866)....................Palearctic [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027241]
Drassus lucifugus Blackwall, 1861a: 105, pl. 6, f. 62 (mf, in part).
Pythonissa l. L. Koch, 1866: 27, pl. 2, f. 19 (Df).
Pythonissa helvetica L. Koch, 1866: 29, pl. 2, f. 20 (Df).
Drassus anglicus O. P.-Cambridge, 1871a: 410, pl. 54, f. 12 (Dmf).
G. l. Thorell, 1871a: 193.
G. l. Thorell, 1875c: 101.
G. borealis Thorell, 1875c: 102 (Dj).
G. helvetica Simon, 1878a: 184.
G. anglica Simon, 1878a: 188.
G. l. Chyzer & Kulczyn'ski, 1897: 186, pl. 7, f. 22 (f).
G. anglica aculeata Strand, 1900c: 38 (D).
G. l. Lessert, 1910b: 81, f. 73-75 (mf).
G. l. Simon, 1914a: 197, 203, 225, f. 431, 453 (mf).
G. l. Palmgren, 1943: 87, f.
G. l. Tullgren, 1946: 86, f. 27A, pl. 14, f. 173-175 (mf).
G. l. Locket & Millidge, 1953: 118, f. 60C-D, 61C (mf).
G. l. Braendegaard, 1966: 135, f. 115-116 (f).
G. l. Azheganova, 1968: 97, f. 229, 238 (mf).
G. l. Tyschchenko, 1971: 94, f. 184, 189 (mf).
G. l. Grimm, 1985: 57, f. 40, 56-57, 75 (mf).
G. l. Roberts, 1985: 76, f. 28c (mf).
G. l. Zhou & Song, 1985b: 271, f. 2a-d (f).
G. l. Hu & Wu, 1989: 268, f. 217.1-4 (f).
G. l. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 420, f. 1109 (mf).
G. l. Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 66, f. 237-242 (mf).
G. l. Noordam, 1992: 1, 2, 14 (mf).
G. l. Roberts, 1995: 117, f. (mf).
G. l. Roberts, 1998: 123, f. (mf).
G. l. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 449, f. 261K, 262A (mf).
G. l. Song, Zhu & Zhang, 2004: 105, f. 59A-D (mf).
G. l. Almquist, 2006: 398, f. 343a-h (mf).

mf licenti Schenkel, 1953....................Kazakhstan, Russia, Mongolia, China, Korea [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027242]
G. sinensis Simon, 1880b: 121, pl. 3, f. 22-23 (m, misidentified).
G. l. Schenkel, 1953b: 21, f. 11 (Df).
G. denisi Schenkel, 1963: 64, f. 34a-c (Dmf).
G. acuaria Schenkel, 1963: 66, f. 35a-b (Dm).
G. aeditua Schenkel, 1963: 67, f. 36 (Df).
G. acuaria Mao & Zhu, 1983: 161, f. 3a-c (Df).
G. denisi Hu, 1984: 279, f. 293.1-2 (mf).
G. denisi Zhu et al., 1985: 150, f. 133a-c (f).
G. denisi Song, 1987: 338, f. 293 (mf, S).
G. acuaria Zhang, 1987: 176, f. 148.1-3 (mf).
G. denisi Hu & Li, 1987b: 301, f. 31.1-4 (mf).
G. montana Hu & Wu, 1989: 269, f. 219.1-4 (mf, misidentified).
G. taegensis Paik, 1989: 11, f. 42-51 (Dm).
G. denisi Chen & Gao, 1990: 144, f. 181a-b (mf).
G. l. Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 53, f. 181-186 (f, Sm).
G. denisi Zhao, 1993: 122, f. 56a-b (mf).
G. denisi Marusik & Logunov, 1995b: 187, f. 81-82 (m).
G. l. Esyunin & Efimik, 1997: 107, f. 3-4 (mf).
G. l. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 449, f. 261L, 262B (mf).
G. denisi Hu, 2001: 246, f. 137.1-4 (mf).
G. l. Song, Zhu & Chen, 2001: 343, f. 221A-D (mf).
G. l. Song, Zhu & Zhang, 2004: 106, f. 60A-D (mf).
G. l. Jung et al., 2005: 179, f. 19, 121-122 (m).
G. l. Zhu & Zhang, 2011: 393, f. 281A-D (mf).
G. l. Yin et al., 2012: 1170, f. 623a-f (mf).

j limbata Strand, 1900....................Norway [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027243]
G. l. Strand, 1900c: 45 (Dj).

f lonai Caporiacco, 1949....................Italy [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027244]
G. l. Caporiacco, 1949d: 128, unnumbered fig. (Df).

mf lucifuga (Walckenaer, 1802) *....................Palearctic [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027245]
Aranea l. Walckenaer, 1802: 221 (D).
Aranea melanogaster Latreille, 1804a: 222 (D).
Drassus lucifugus Walckenaer, 1805: 45.
Drassus melanogaster Latreille, 1806: 87, pl. 3, f. 10 (D).
Drassus fuscus Latreille, 1806: 87 (D).
Drassus lucifugus Walckenaer, 1830: 155, pl. 2, f. 1 (Dmf).
Drassus melanogaster Hahn, 1833a: 11, f. 102 (Df).
Pythonissa fusca C. L. Koch, 1837b: 16.
Pythonissa nigra C. L. Koch, 1837b: 16 (D).
Pythonissa l. C. L. Koch, 1839a: 54, f. 468-470 (mf).
Pythonissa fusca C. L. Koch, 1839a: 56, f. 471 (Df).
Pythonissa occulta C. L. Koch, 1839a: 58, f. 472 (Df).
Drassus l. Blackwall, 1861a: 105, pl. 6, f. 62 (mf, in part).
Pythonissa l. L. Koch, 1866: 10, pl. 1, f. 5-8 (mf).
Pythonissa femoralis L. Koch, 1866: 36, pl. 2, f. 26 (Df).
Thysa pythonissaeformis Kempelen, 1867: 607, pl. 14, f. 1-6 (Df).
G. l. Thorell, 1868a: 379.
G. l. Thorell, 1871a: 187.
G. l. Simon, 1893a: 383, f. 336-338.
G. l. Becker, 1896: 263, pl. 17, f. 24 (mf).
G. l. Chyzer & Kulczyn'ski, 1897: 186, pl. 7, f. 27 (mf).
G. l. Bösenberg, 1902: 315, pl. 29, f. 465 (mf).
G. l. Lessert, 1910b: 73, f. 61-62 (mf).
G. l. Simon, 1914a: 193, 199, 223, f. 414-415, 439 (mf).
G. l. Spassky, 1925: 32, f. 8 (m).
G. l. Reimoser, 1931b: 41, f. 4 (mf).
G. l. Denis, 1935d: 114, f. 7 (f).
G. l. Reimoser, 1937a: 8, f. 9, 15 (mf).
G. l. Tullgren, 1946: 78, f. 23A-B, pl. 12, f. 154-156 (mf).
G. l. Tyschchenko, 1971: 92, f. 181 (m).
G. l. Miller, 1971: 77, pl. V, f. 20, pl. VI, f. 10 (mf).
G. l. Platnick & Shadab, 1975a: 11, f. 7, 9 (mf).
G. l. Grimm, 1985: 60, f. 43, 60-61 (mf).
G. l. Hu & Wu, 1989: 268, f. 218.1-4 (mf).
G. l. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 422, f. 1113 (mf).
G. l. Karol, 1987: 27, f. 1-2 (f).
G. l. Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 5, f. 1-6 (mf).
G. l. Noordam, 1992: 3, 14 (mf).
G. l. Zhao, 1993: 123, f. 57a-b (mf).
G. l. Mcheidze, 1997: 111, f. 137, 144 (m).
G. l. Roberts, 1998: 122, f. (mf).
G. l. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 450, f. 261M, 252C (mf).
G. l. Song, Zhu & Zhang, 2004: 108, f. 61A-D (mf).
G. l. Kovblyuk, 2005b: 134, f. 1-5 (mf).
G. l. Almquist, 2006: 399, f. 344a-e (mf).
G. l. Murphy, 2007: 32, f. 110-111 (mf).

m lucifuga minor Nosek, 1905....................Turkey [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027246]
G. l. m. Nosek, 1905b: 128 (Dm).

f luctifica Simon, 1879....................France [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027247]
G. l. Simon, 1879a: 259 (Df).
G. l. Simon, 1914a: 199, 255, f. 441 (f).

mf lugubris (C. L. Koch, 1839)....................Europe to Central Asia [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027248]
Pythonissa l. C. L. Koch, 1839a: 60, f. 473 (Df).
Drassus hellenicus Walckenaer, 1841: 485 (D).
Pythonissa l. L. Koch, 1866: 8, pl. 1, f. 4 (f).
G. l. Simon, 1878a: 174 (Dm).
G. soror Herman, 1879: 190, 362, pl. 7, f. 169 (Df).
G. pittierii Gétaz, 1889: 63 (Df).
G. l. Chyzer & Kulczyn'ski, 1897: 187, pl. 7, f. 23 (mf).
G. l. Bösenberg, 1902: 315, pl. 30, f. 466 (mf).
G. l. Simon, 1914a: 197, 200, 223, f. 434, 443 (mf).
G. krogerusi Schenkel, 1934: 102, f. 6 (Dm).
G. l. Reimoser, 1937a: 9, f. 12, 18 (mf).
G. l. Locket & Millidge, 1951: 117, f. 60A, G, 61A (mf).
G. l. Locket & Millidge, 1957: 486, f. 5A (m).
G. l. Tyschchenko, 1971: 92, f. 182, 191 (mf).
G. l. Miller, 1971: 78, pl. VI, f. 11-12 (mf).
G. l. Locket, Millidge & Merrett, 1974: 10, f. 4C (m).
G. l. Platnick & Shadab, 1975a: 33, f. 8, 10 (mf).
G. l. Grimm, 1985: 64, f. 49, 62-63 (mf).
G. l. Roberts, 1985: 76, f. 28a (mf).
G. l. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 422, f. 1119 (mf).
G. l. Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 20, f. 57-62 (mf, S).
G. l. Noordam, 1992: 14 (f).
G. l. Roberts, 1995: 115, f. (mf).
G. l. Mcheidze, 1997: 110, f. 138, 142-143 (mf).
G. l. Felton, 1997: 311, f. 4 (m).
G. l. Roberts, 1998: 121, f. (mf).

mf mandschurica Schenkel, 1963....................Russia, Mongolia, China, Nepal [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027249]
G. m. Schenkel, 1963: 71, f. 38 (Df).
G. glandifera Schenkel, 1963: 72, f. 39 (Df).
G. holmi Schenkel, 1963: 73, f. 40 (Df; N.B.: preoccupied by Lohmander, 1942 and Tullgren, 1942).
G. charitonowi Schenkel, 1963: 75, f. 41 (Df).
G. braendegaardi Schenkel, 1963: 76, f. 42a-c (Dm).
G. berlandi Schenkel, 1963: 83, f. 47 (Df).
G. charitonowi Song, Yu & Shang, 1981: 88, f. 18 (f).
G. charitonowi Hu, 1984: 278, f. 292.2 (f).
G. charitonowi Song, 1987: 338, f. 292 (f).
G. m. Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 45, f. 151-152, 155-158 (f, Sm).
G. glandifera Marusik & Logunov, 1995b: 187, f. 38-39 (f).
G. m. Marusik & Logunov, 1995b: 187, f. 53-54 (m).
G. m. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 450, f. 261N, 262D (mf).
G. charitonowi Hu, 2001: 248, f. 138.1-2 (f).
G. m. Song, Zhu & Zhang, 2004: 110, f. 62A-D (mf).

mf maritima Platnick & Shadab, 1975....................USA, Mexico [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027250]
G. m. Platnick & Shadab, 1975a: 15, f. 23-28 (Dmf).

f mcheidzeae Mikhailov, 1998....................Georgia [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027251]
G. caucasica Mcheidze, 1997: 109, f. 140-141 (Df; N.B.: preoccupied by Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992).
G. m. Mikhailov, 1998b: 25 (replacement name).

mf microps Holm, 1939....................Holarctic [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027252]
G. bilineata L. Koch, 1879c: 86, pl. 3, f. 5 (Df; N.B.: suppressed for lack of use).
G. bilineata Kulczyn'ski, 1916: 3, pl. 1, f. 2 (f).
G. m. Holm, 1939b: 9, f. 4 (Df).
G. m. Palmgren, 1943: 88, f
G. m. Holm, 1945b: 64, f. 21 (Dm).
G. m. Tullgren, 1946: 90, pl. 15, f. 182-184 (mf).
G. m. Miller, 1971: 78, pl. LXI, f. 12-13 (mf).
G. m. Holm, 1973: 103 (S).
G. m. Platnick & Shadab, 1975a: 44, f. 101-106 (mf).
G. m. Thaler, 1982c: 406, f. 8-9 (mf).
G. m. Grimm, 1985: 70, f. 41, 79-80 (mf).
G. m. Ovtsharenko & Marusik, 1988: 205, f. 1-3 (mf).
G. m. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 422, f. 1111 (mf).
G. m. Platnick & Dondale, 1992: 179, f. 272-275 (mf).
G. m. Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 59, f. 189-190, 203-206 (mf).
G. m. Ovtsharenko & Marusik, 1996: 115, pl. 3, f. 4, 12 (mf).
G. m. Stankiewicz, 1996: 212, f. 1-4 (mf).
G. m. Marusik & Koponen, 2001b: 140, f. 5 (m).
G. m. Paquin & Dupérré, 2003: 77, f. 661-663 (mf).
G. m. Almquist, 2006: 400, f. 345a-e (mf).

mf modestior Kulczyn'ski, 1897....................Eastern Europe to Azerbaijan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027253]
G. m. Kulczyn'ski, in Chyzer & Kulczyn'ski, 1897: 184, pl. 7, f. 18 (Dmf).
G. m. Grimm, 1985: 72, f. 37-38 (f, m=G. alpica).
G. m. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 420, f. 1108 (f, m=G. alpica).
G. m. Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 63, f. 213-214, 225-228 (f, Dm).

mf moerens O. P.-Cambridge, 1885....................China, Nepal [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027254]
G. m. O. P.-Cambridge, 1885b: 17, pl. 2, f. 13 (Dmf).
G. m. Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 75, f. 271-274 (Tmf from Pterotricha per Roewer).
G. m. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 450, f. 261O, 262E (mf).
G. m. Song, Zhu & Zhang, 2004: 111, f. 63A-D (mf).

mf moesta Thorell, 1875....................Hungary, Romania, Ukraine, Russia [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027255]
G. m. Thorell, 1875b: 84 (Dm).
G. m. Thorell, 1875c: 99 (Dm).
G. suspecta Herman, 1879: 194, 363, pl. 7, f. 168 (Df).
G. suspecta Chyzer & Kulczyn'ski, 1897: 189, pl. 7, f. 21 (f).
G. m. Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 31, f. 107-110 (m, Sf; N.B.: f misidentified per Kovblyuk, 2005b: 148).
G. m. Tuneva & Esyunin, 2003a: 230, f. 20-21 (f).
G. m. Kovblyuk, 2005b: 145, f. 47-51 (mf).

mf mongolica Simon, 1895....................Turkey, Hungary to China [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027256]
G. m. Simon, 1895c: 334 (Df).
G. spinosa Kulczyn'ski, in Chyzer & Kulczyn'ski, 1897: 187, pl. 7, f. 16 (Dmf).
G. punctata Kulczyn'ski, 1901b: 323, pl. 12, f. 1 (Dmf).
G. auriceps Schenkel, 1953b: 19, f. 10a-c (Dmf).
G. chaffanjoni Schenkel, 1963: 69, f. 37a-c (Dm).
G. corifera Schenkel, 1963: 77, f. 43 (Df).
G. spinosa Loksa, 1965: 23, f. 34-35 (f, S).
G. chaffanjoni Ponomarev, 1981: 56, f. 2 (Df).
G. spinosa Weiss & Marcu, 1988: 113, f. 1-4 (mf).
G. chaffanjoni Izmailova, 1989: 102, f. 83 (f).
G. denisi Hu & Wu, 1989: 266, f. 216.1-2 (f, misidentified).
G. m. Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 46, f. 153-154, 159-162 (f, Sm).
G. m. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 450, f. 261P, 262F (mf).
G. m. Song, Zhu & Zhang, 2004: 112, f. 64A-D (mf).
G. m. Szita et al., 2006: 331, f. 2a-d (mf).

mf montana (L. Koch, 1866)....................Palearctic [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027257]
Pythonissa m. L. Koch, 1866: 18, pl. 1, f. 11 (Df).
G. m. Thorell, 1871a: 188 (Dm).
G. m. Chyzer & Kulczyn'ski, 1897: 187, pl. 7, f. 25 (f).
G. m. Bösenberg, 1902: 316, pl. 30, f. 467 (f).
G. m. Simon, 1914a: 199, 223, f. 440 (f).
G. m. Kulczyn'ski, 1915: 916, pl. 66, f. 22-24 (f).
G. lucifuga Charitonov, 1926a: 259, f. 1 (f, misidentified).
G. m. Reimoser, 1937a: 8, f. 16 (Dm).
G. m. Tullgren, 1942: 218, pl. 1, f. 1 (m).
G. m. Palmgren, 1943: 85, f.
G. m. Tullgren, 1946: 85, f. 26B, pl. 14, f. 170-172 (mf).
G. m. Miller, 1971: 78, pl. VI, f. 7-9 (mf).
G. m. Grimm, 1985: 73, f. 48, 72-74 (mf).
G. m. Izmailova, 1989: 103, f. 84 (f).
G. m. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 422, f. 1117 (mf).
G. m. Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 74, f. 243-244, 267-270 (mf).
G. m. Noordam, 1992: 14 (f).
G. m. Zhao, 1993: 124, f. 58a-b (mf).
G. m. Roberts, 1998: 123, f. (mf).
G. m. Seyyar, Demir & Topçu, 2006: 50, f. 1A-C (mf).
G. m. Almquist, 2006: 401, f. 346a-f (mf).

mf muscorum (L. Koch, 1866)....................Holarctic [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027258]
Pythonissa m. L. Koch, 1866: 14, pl. 1, f. 9-10 (Dmf).
G. m. Thorell, 1871a: 190.
G. conspersa Thorell, 1877c: 489 (Df; preoccupied by O. P.-Cambridge, 1872).
G. tigrina Simon, 1878a: 181 (f, misidentified).
G. gigantea Keyserling, 1887b: 424, pl. 6, f. 3 (Df).
G. conspersa Emerton, 1890: 176, pl. 4, f. 4 (f, Dm).
G. conspersa Emerton, 1902: 2, f. 3-5 (f).
G. m. Lessert, 1910b: 75, f. 63-65 (mf).
G. gigantea Comstock, 1912: 320, f. 311-312.
G. m. Simon, 1914a: 197, 200, 223, f. 433, 442 (mf).
G. similis Kulczyn'ski, 1926: 42, pl. 2, f. 6 (Df).
G. m. Gertsch, 1935a: 28 (S).
G. m. Reimoser, 1937a: 8, f. 11, 19 (mf).
G. gigantea Comstock, 1940: 334, f. 311 (f).
G. m. Palmgren, 1943: 86, f.
G. m. Tullgren, 1946: 80, f. 24A, pl. 12, f. 157-158, pl. 13, f. 159-160 (mf).
G. m. Kaston, 1948: 344, f. 1178-1180 (mf).
G. m. Buchar, 1961: 95, f. 3F (m).
G. lesserti Schenkel, 1963: 80, f. 45 (Df).
G. m. Beer, 1964: 525, f. 1 (f).
G. m. Tyschchenko, 1971: 93, f. 186 (m).
G. mongolica Savelyeva, 1972a: 1238, f. 1-2 (f, misidentified).
G. m. Ubick & Roth, 1973a: 3 (S).
G. m. Platnick & Shadab, 1975a: 34, f. 3-6, 79-84 (mf).
G. m. Grimm, 1985: 74, f. 42, 54-55, 76 (mf).
G. m. Ovtsharenko & Marusik, 1988: 207 (S Drassina ochracea, rejected).
G. m. Wesolowska, 1988b: 411, f. 24-28 (m, S).
G. m. Hu & Wu, 1989: 271, f. 216.3-4 (f, S).
G. m. Izmailova, 1989: 103, f. 85 (f).
G. m. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 422, f. 1112 (mf).
G. m. Platnick & Dondale, 1992: 174, f. 16-17, 264-267 (mf).
G. m. Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 42, f. 145-150 (mf, S).
G. m. Marusik & Logunov, 1995b: 189, f. 51-52, 55-56 (f).
G. m. Ovtsharenko & Marusik, 1996: 116, pl. 3, 9, 17 (mf).
G. m. Mcheidze, 1997: 111, f. 136 (m).
G. m. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 250, f. 262Q, 262G (mf).
G. m. Marusik & Koponen, 2000: 59, f. 8, 10-11 (mf).
G. similis Marusik & Koponen, 2000: 59, f. 9, 12-13 (mf, considered distinct, not accepted here).
G. m. Hu, 2001: 249, f. 139.1-4 (mf).
G. m. Namkung, 2002: 477, f. 37.18a-b (mf).
G. m. Paquin & Dupérré, 2003: 77, f. 664-666 (mf).
G. m. Namkung, 2003: 480, f. 37.18a-b (mf).
G. m. Song, Zhu & Zhang, 2004: 114, f. 65A-D (mf).
G. m. Almquist, 2006: 402, f. 347a-e (mf).
G. similis Marusik & Kovblyuk, 2011: 40, f. 2.6, 17.21 (m).
G. m. Marusik & Kovblyuk, 2011: 156, f. 17.23 (f).

f muscorum gaunitzi Tullgren, 1955....................Sweden, Russia [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027259]
G. punctata Tullgren, 1942: 229, f. 2a-b (Df, preoccupied by Kulczyn'ski, 1901).
G. m. punctata Tullgren, 1946: 81, pl. 13, f. 161 (f).
G. m. g. Tullgren, in Roewer, 1955c: 366 (replacement name).
G. punctata Izmailova, 1989: 205, f. 87 (f).

mf namulinensis Hu, 2001....................China [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:038058]
G. n. Hu, 2001: 249, f. 140.1-4 (Dmf).
G. n. Song, Zhu & Zhang, 2004: 115, f. 66A-D (mf).

mf nigerrima L. Koch, 1877....................Palearctic [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027260]
G. n. L. Koch, 1877b: 185, f. 11 (Df).
G. nigra Kulczyn'ski, 1926: 40, pl. 2, f. 5 (Df).
G. n. Reimoser, 1937a: 9, f. 17 (f).
G. n. Lohmander, 1942: 34, 37 (Dm).
G. n. Tullgren, 1946: 88, f. 27B, pl. 14, f. 176-178 (mf).
G. n. Miller, 1951: 226, pl. III, f. 15-18 (mf).
G. n. Miller, 1971: 78, pl. V, f. 21, pl. VI, f. 3 (m).
G. n. Grimm, 1985: 77, f. 50, 52-53 (mf).
G. n. Ovtsharenko & Marusik, 1988: 207, f. 12-14 (mf).
G. n. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 422, f. 1120 (mf).
G. n. Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 80, f. 285-286, 293-296 (mf, S).
G. n. Roberts, 1995: 116, f. (mf).
G. n. Ovtsharenko & Marusik, 1996: 116, pl. 3, f. 7, 13 (mf).
G. n. Felton, 1997: 311, f. 1-3 (mf).
G. n. Roberts, 1998: 121, f. (mf).
G. n. Villepoux & Duhem, 2004: 20, f. 7A-C (mf).
G. n. Almquist, 2006: 403, f. 348a-e (mf).

f nordlandica Strand, 1900....................Norway [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027261]
G. n. Strand, 1900c: 41, f. b (Df).

f norvegica Strand, 1900....................Norway [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027262]
G. n. Strand, 1900c: 43, f. a (Df).

mf occidentalis Simon, 1878....................Western Europe [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027263]
G. o. Simon, 1878a: 177, pl. 15, f. 11 (Dmf).
G. lugubris o. Simon, 1914a: 194, 201, 224, f. 417, 445 (mf).
G. o. Locket & Millidge, 1951: 117, f. 60B, E-F, 61B (mf).
G. o. Locket & Millidge, 1957: 486, f. 5B-C (m, elevated from subspecies, contra Roewer, 1955).
G. o. Locket, Millidge & Merrett, 1974: 10, f. 4D-E (m).
G. o. Roberts, 1985: 76, f. 28b (mf).
G. o. Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 22, f. 67-70 (mf).
G. o. Roberts, 1995: 116, f. (mf).
G. o. Roberts, 1998: 122, f. (mf).

f oceanica Simon, 1878....................France [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027264]
G. o. Simon, 1878a: 179 (Df).
G. o. Simon, 1914a: 198, 224, f. 437 (f).

mf oligerae Ovtsharenko & Platnick, 1998....................Russia [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027265]
G. o. Ovtsharenko & Platnick, 1998: 3, f. 1-5 (Dmf).

mf opaca Herman, 1879....................Europe to Central Asia [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027266]
G. o. Herman, 1879: 195, 364, pl. 7, f. 171 (Dm).
G. molesta Herman, 1879: 195, 363, pl. 7, f. 170 (Df).
G. fusca Herman, 1879: 362.
G. o. Chyzer & Kulczyn'ski, 1897: 189, pl. 7, f. 20 (mf).
G. o. Miller, 1947: 35, pl. III, f. 16 (f).
G. o. Tyschchenko, 1971: 94, f. 185 (m).
G. o. Miller, 1971: 77, pl. VI, f. 4-6 (mf).
G. o. Starega, 1972: 84, f. 12-14, photo 8 (mf).
G. o. Grimm, 1985: 78, f. 45, 64-65 (mf).
G. iberica Pérez, 1985: 67, f. 8-10 (mf, misidentified per Emerit & Ledoux, 2004a: 17 and Braud, Hervé & Ledoux, 2004: 19).
G. o. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 422, f. 1115 (mf).
G. o. Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 31, f. 103-106 (mf).
G. o. Roberts, 1998: 121, f. (mf).
G. o. Braud, Hervé & Ledoux, 2004: 19, f. 5A-C (mf).

mf orites Chamberlin, 1922....................Holarctic [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027268]
G. o. Chamberlin, 1922: 158 (Dm).
G. labradorensis Fox, 1938a: 231, pl. 1, f. 1 (Dm).
G. humilis Holm, 1939b: 7, f. 3a-c (Dm, preoccupied).
G. holmi Tullgren, 1942: 220 (replacement name for G. humilis; N.B.: identical replacement name provided by Lohmander, 1942: 47).
G. holmi Lohmander, 1942: 47 (replacement name for G. humilis).
G. holmi Palmgren, 1943: 88, f.
G. holmi Tullgren, 1946: 89, f. 27C, pl. 14, f. 179-181 (m, Df).
G. o. Holm, 1950: 129 (S).
G. stuxbergi Holm, 1970: 206, f. 40 (Df).
G. o. Ubick & Roth, 1973a: 4 (S).
G. o. Platnick & Shadab, 1975a: 46, f. 65, 107-108 (m; not f, =G. borea).
G. o. Ovtsharenko & Marusik, 1988: 208, f. 4-6 (mf, S).
G. o. Platnick & Dondale, 1992: 186, f. 284-287 (mf).
G. o. Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 60, f. 207-212 (mf).
G. o. Ovtsharenko & Marusik, 1996: 117, pl. 3, f. 1, 3, 11 (mf).
G. o. Marusik & Koponen, 2001b: 140, f. 4 (m).
G. o. Paquin & Dupérré, 2003: 77, f. 657-659 (mf).
G. o. Almquist, 2006: 404, f. 349a-e (mf).
G. o. Marusik, Omelko & Koponen, 2011: 51, f. 1-6 (mf).

mf ovchinnikovi Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992....................Kyrgyzstan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027269]
G. o. Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 56, f. 191-194 (Dmf).

mf pakistanica Ovtchinnikov, Ahmad & Inayatullah, 2008....................Pakistan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:041940]
G. p. Ovtchinnikov, Ahmad & Inayatullah, 2008: 82, f. 1-4 (Dmf).

mf parvula Banks, 1896....................USA, Canada, Alaska [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027270]
G. p. Banks, 1896e: 61 (Df).
G. p. Emerton, 1909: 218, pl. 9, f. 3 (f, Dm).
G. p. Kaston, 1948: 346, f. 1161-1162, 1184 (mf).
G. p. Platnick & Shadab, 1975a: 48, f. 111-116 (mf).
G. p. Platnick & Dondale, 1992: 176, f. 268-271 (mf).
G. p. Paquin & Dupérré, 2003: 77, f. 670-672 (mf).

f pauriensis Tikader & Gajbe, 1977....................India [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027271]
G. p. Tikader & Gajbe, 1977b: 44, f. 1A-E (Df).
G. p. Tikader, 1982b: 334, f. 90-95 (f).
G. p. Gajbe, 2007: 457, f. 71-76 (f).

f pengi Zhang & Yin, 2001....................China [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:038059]
G. p. Zhang & Yin, 2001b: 479, f. 1-4 (Df).
G. p. Song, Zhu & Zhang, 2004: 117, f. 67A-B (f).

f perplexa Denis, 1958....................Afghanistan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027272]
G. p. Denis, 1958b: 95, f. 22 (Df).
G. p. Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 18, f. 51-52 (f).

mf petrobia L. Koch, 1872....................Europe [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027273]
G. p. L. Koch, 1872b: 302 (Dmf).
G. hospitalis Simon, 1878a: 186 (Df).
G. p. Müller & Schenkel, 1895: 772, pl. 14, f. 8 (m).
G. p. Kulczyn'ski, 1903b: 643, pl. 1, f. 8 (f).
G. p. Lessert, 1910b: 80, f. 71-72 (mf).
G. p. Simon, 1914a: 197, 203, 224, f. 432, 450 (mf).
G. p. Holm, 1939b: 9, f. 3d-e (m).
G. p. Rosca, 1968: 86, f. 17a-b (mf).
G. p. Tyschchenko, 1971: 92, g. 183, 190 (mf).
G. p. Grimm, 1985: 79, f. 39, 58-59 (mf).
G. p. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 420, f. 1110 (mf).
G. p. Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 70, f. 251-254 (mf).

mf pilosa Savelyeva, 1972....................Kazakhstan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027274]
G. p. Savelyeva, 1972a: 1240, f. 3-4 (Df).
G. p. Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 24, f. 75-78 (f, Dm).

mf poonaensis Tikader, 1973....................India [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027275]
G. p. Tikader, 1973a: 188, f. 6-10 (Dm).
G. p. Tikader, 1982b: 332, f. 1-2, 83-89 (m, Df).
G. p. Gajbe, 2007: 456, f. 64-70 (mf).

f porrecta Strand, 1900....................Norway [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027276]
G. p. Strand, 1900c: 39, f. c (Df).

mf potanini Simon, 1895....................Russia, Mongolia, China, Korea, Japan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027277]
G. p. Simon, 1895c: 333 (Df).
G. silvicola Kamura, 1988: 9, f. 5-6, 20-26 (Dmf).
G. silvicola Kim et al., 1988: 147, f. 6-10 (mf).
G. silvicola Paik, 1989: 7, f. 19-29 (mf).
G. p. Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 32, f. 111-114 (f, Sm).
G. p. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 450, f. 262H, M (mf).
G. p. Namkung, 2002: 476, f. 37.17a-b (mf).
G. p. Namkung, 2003: 479, f. 37.17a-b (mf).
G. p. Song, Zhu & Zhang, 2004: 118, f. 68A-D (mf).
G. p. Jung et al., 2005: 180, f. 20-21, 62, 87, 123-124 (mf).
G. p. Kamura, 2009: 488, f. 61-64 (mf).

mf potosi Platnick & Shadab, 1975....................Mexico [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027278]
G. p. Platnick & Shadab, 1975a: 32, f. 66-70 (Dmf).

m primorica Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992....................Russia, Japan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027279]
G. p. Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 78, f. 289-290 (Dm).
G. p. Ono & Kudo, 1996: 74, f. 1-6 (m).
G. p. Kamura, 2009: 488, f. 68-69 (m).

f prosperi Simon, 1878....................Spain [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027280]
G. p. Simon, 1878a: 175 (Df).

mf pseashcho Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992....................Russia [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027281]
G. p. Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 25, f. 65, 79-82 (Dmf).

mf pseudoleporina Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992....................Russia [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027283]
G. p. Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 68, f. 247-250 (Dmf).
G. p. Marusik & Koponen, 2001b: 141, f. 14-18 (m).
G. p. Azarkina & Trilikauskas, 2013a: 52, f. 1-18 (mf).

f rasnitsyni Marusik, 1993....................Mongolia [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027285]
G. r. Marusik, 1993a: 79, f. 4-6 (Df).

mf reikhardi Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992....................Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027286]
G. r. Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 76, f. 245, 275-278 (Dmf).

mf rhenana Müller & Schenkel, 1895....................Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Italy, Romania [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027287]
G. r. Müller & Schenkel, 1895: 772, pl. 14, f. 9 (Dmf).
G. r. Lessert, 1910b: 82, f. 76-78 (mf).
G. r. Rosca, 1968: 86, f. 18a-b (mf).
G. r. Grimm, 1985: 81, f. 46, 66-67 (mf).
G. r. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 422, f. 1116 (mf).
G. r. Pesarini, 2000: 385, f. 15 (m).

m rohtakensis Gajbe, 1992....................India [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027288]
G. r. Gajbe, 1992a: 303, f. 1-5 (Dm).

mf rufula (L. Koch, 1866)....................Hungary, Russia, Kazakhstan, Lebanon, Israel [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027289]
Pythonissa r. L. Koch, 1866: 20, pl. 1, f. 12-14 (Dmf).
G. r. Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 29, f. 95-98 (m, Df; N.B.: Koch's f=G. steppica).
G. r. Levy, 1995: 977, f. 143-144 (f).
G. r. Szita et al., 2006: 331, f. 2e-h (mf).
G. r. Ponomarev, 2008b: 81, f. 2-3 (m).

mf salsa Platnick & Shadab, 1975....................USA, Mexico [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027290]
G. s. Platnick & Shadab, 1975a: 22, f. 47-52 (Dmf).

mf sandersi Gertsch & Davis, 1940....................Mexico [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027291]
G. s. Gertsch & Davis, 1940b: 8, f. 14 (Df).
G. s. Platnick & Shadab, 1975a: 59, f. 139-142 (f, Dm).

mf saurica Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992....................Russia, Ukraine, Georgia, Central Asia [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027292]
G. s. Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 6, f. 15-18 (Dmf; N. B.: for Levy, 1995: 977, f=G. barroisi).
G. s. Esyunin & Efimik, 1997: 107, f. 6-7, 10-12 (mf).
G. s. Kovblyuk, 2005b: 141, f. 29-46 (mf; N.B.: in note on p. 151, considered a junior S of G. dolosa, but that S was not based on examination of holotype of G. dolosa and is therefore uncertain).

mf saxosa Platnick & Shadab, 1975....................USA [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027293]
G. s. Platnick & Shadab, 1975a: 17, f. 29-34 (Dmf).

f secreta Simon, 1878....................France [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027294]
G. s. Simon, 1878a: 190 (Df).
G. s. Simon, 1914a: 203, 224, f. 451 (f).

mf sericata (L. Koch, 1866)....................USA to Guatemala, Cuba [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027295]
Pythonissa s. L. Koch, 1866: 31, pl. 2, f. 21-22 (Dm).
Drassus diversus Blackwall, 1871: 433 (Dj).
G. s. Banks, 1895d: 78.
G. spiralis F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1899a: 55, pl. 4, f. 18 (Dm).
G. peon Chamberlin, 1925d: 213 (Df).
G. simplex Franganillo, 1926a: 49 (D).
Cylphosa s. Chamberlin, 1936a: 14.
Poecilochroa inconspicua Bryant, 1948b: 408, pl. 10, f. 91 (Df).
G. s. Kaston, 1948: 346, f. 1181-1183 (mf).
G. s. Kaston, 1972a: 210, f. 14-15, 33 (mf, removed from S of G. bicolor per Roewer).
G. s. Ubick & Roth, 1973a: 4 (S).
G. s. Platnick & Shadab, 1975a: 61, f. 143-149 (mf, S).
G. s. Platnick & Shadab, 1981e: 7 (S).
G. s. Heiss & Allen, 1986: 15, f. 25-26 (mf).
G. s. Platnick & Dondale, 1992: 161, f. 240-243 (mf).
G. s. Breene et al., 1993: 88, f. 109A-B (mf).

mf sinensis Simon, 1880....................China, Korea [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027296]
G. s. Simon, 1880b: 121, pl. 3, f. 24 (Df, not m, =D. licenti).
G. koreae Strand, 1907k: 122 (Df).
G. s. Saito, 1936b: 5, 74, pl. 5 (f).
G. kratochvili Schenkel, 1963: 61, f. 32a-c (Df).
G. bonneti Schenkel, 1963: 62, f. 33 (Df).
G. martae Schenkel, 1963: 85, f. 48 (Df).
G. schensiensis Schenkel, 1963: 90, f. 52a-b (Dm).
G. s. Song & Hubert, 1983: 17, f. 46-49 (f).
G. schensiensis Zhu et al., 1985: 151, f. 134a-c (m).
G. s. Zhu et al., 1985: 152, f. 135a-c (f).
G. s. Song, 1987: 339, f. 294 (f, S).
G. schensiensis Zhang, 1987: 179, f. 121, f. 150.1-3 (m).
G. s. Zhang, 1987: 180, f. 151.1-3 (f).
G. schensiensis Hu & Li, 1987b: 299, f. 30.3-4 (m).
G. koreae Paik & Kim, 1989: 40, f. 1-6 (f).
G. s. Chen & Gao, 1990: 145, f. 183a-c (f).
G. s. Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 71, f. 255-258 (f, Sm).
G. schensiensis Zhao, 1993: 124, f. 59 (m).
G. s. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 450, f. 262I, N (mf).
G. schensiensis Hu, 2001: 252, f. 141.1-2 (m).
G. s. Song, Zhu & Chen, 2001: 344, f. 222A-D (mf).
G. s. Song, Zhu & Zhang, 2004: 119, f. 69A-D (mf).
G. s. Jung et al., 2005: 180, f. 22, 63, 88, 125-126 (mf).
G. s. Zhu & Zhang, 2011: 394, f. 282A-D (mf).

mf snohomish Platnick & Shadab, 1975....................USA, Canada [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027297]
G. s. Platnick & Shadab, 1975a: 52, f. 123-126 (Dmf).
G. s. Platnick & Dondale, 1992: 170, f. 256-259 (mf).
G. s. Bennett, Fitzpatrick & Troubridge, 2007: 16, f. 1-9 (mf).

mf songi Zhang, 2001....................China [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:038060]
G. s. Zhang, in Zhang, Song & Zhu, 2001: 52, f. 1A-F (Dmf).
G. s. Song, Zhu & Zhang, 2004: 121, f. 70A-F (mf).

mf sonora Platnick & Shadab, 1975....................Mexico [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027298]
G. s. Platnick & Shadab, 1975a: 25, f. 42, 71-72 (Df).
G. s. Platnick, 1976c: 135, f. 1-2 (Dm).

mf steppica Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992....................Turkey to Kazakhstan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027299]
G. s. Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 37, f. 127-128, 133-136 (Dmf).
G. s. Tuneva & Esyunin, 2003b: 279, f. 5-7 (mf).

mf sticta Kulczyn'ski, 1908....................Palearctic [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027300]
G. s. Kulczyn'ski, 1908b: 7, pl. 1, f. 4 (Df).
G. intermedia Holm, 1939b: 11, f. 5 (Df).
G. intermedia Palmgren, 1943: 88, f.
G. intermedia Tullgren, 1946: 83, f. 24C, pl. 13, f. 165 (f).
G. microps Holm, 1950: 136, f. 8a-b (m, misidentified).
G. s. Ovtsharenko & Marusik, 1988: 208, f. 16-17, 20 (m, Sf).
G. s. Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 48, f. 163-168 (mf).
G. s. Ono, 1994c: 189, f. 1-4 (mf).
G. s. Ovtsharenko & Marusik, 1996: 117, pl. 3, f. 8, 14 (mf).
G. s. Almquist, 2006: 404, f. 350a-e (mf).
G. s. Kamura, 2009: 488, f. 65-67 (mf).

mf stoliczkai O. P.-Cambridge, 1885....................China [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027301]
G. stoliczkae O. P.-Cambridge, 1885b: 16, pl. 2, f. 12 (Dmf).
G. s. Schenkel, 1936b: 259, f. 85 (m).
G. rudolfi Schenkel, 1963: 88, f. 51a-b (Dm).
G. stoliczkae Tikader, 1982b: 340, f. 105-107 (f).
G. rudolfi Hu & Wu, 1989: 272, f. 220.1-4 (m, Df).
G. s. Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 12, f. 27-32 (mf, S).
G. s. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 450, f. 262J, O (mf).
G. s. Song, Zhu & Zhang, 2004: 123, f. 71A-D (mf).

mf stussineri Simon, 1885....................Greece [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027302]
G. s. Simon, 1885c: 213 (Dmf).

mf synthetica Chamberlin, 1924....................USA, Mexico [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027303]
G. s. Chamberlin, 1924b: 620, f. 59-60 (Dmf).
G. s. Platnick & Shadab, 1975a: 20, f. 41, 43-46 (mf).

mf tarabaevi Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992....................Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027304]
G. t. Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 64, f. 215-216, 229-232 (Dmf).

mf taurica Thorell, 1875....................Bulgaria to China [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027305]
G. t. Thorell, 1875b: 84 (Dm).
G. t. Thorell, 1875c: 98 (Dm).
G. t. Spassky, 1925: 33, f. 43 (f).
G. t. Tyschchenko, 1971: 92, f. 187 (f).
G. t. Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 22, f. 63-64, 71-74 (mf).
G. t. Mcheidze, 1997: 109, f. 139 (f).
G. t. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 451, f. 262K, P (mf).
G. t. Song, Zhu & Zhang, 2004: 124, f. 72A-D (mf).
G. t. Kovblyuk, 2005b: 148, f. 52-57 (mf).
G. t. Ramírez, 2014: 238, f. 166D-E (m).

f tenebrosa Fox, 1938....................probably Mexico [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027306]
G. t. Fox, 1938a: 229, pl. 2, f. 6 (Df).
G. t. Platnick & Shadab, 1975a: 27, f. 73-74 (f).

mf tetrica Simon, 1878....................France, Macedonia [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027307]
G. t. Simon, 1878a: 170 (Dmf).

mf tigrina Simon, 1878....................Mediterranean to Russia [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027308]
G. t. Simon, 1878a: 180 (Dm, not f).
G. t. Lessert, 1910b: 78, f. 69-70 (m).
G. t. Simon, 1914a: 201, 224, f. 429-430, 446 (m, Df).
G. t. Grimm, 1985: 82, f. 44, 70-71 (mf).
G. t. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 422, f. 1114 (mf).
G. t. Tuneva & Esyunin, 2003b: 281, f. 8-11 (mf).

m tumd Tang, Song & Zhang, 2001....................China [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:038061]
G. t. Tang, Song & Zhang, 2001a: 15, f. 1-3 (Dm).
G. tumid Song, Zhu & Zhang, 2004: 125, f. 73A-C (m).

mf tuvinica Marusik & Logunov, 1992....................Russia, Mongolia [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027310]
G. t. Marusik & Logunov, in Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 28, f. 91-94 (Dmf).
G. t. Marusik & Logunov, 1995b: 191, f. 57-60 (mf).
G. t. Marusik & Logunov, 2009: 147, f. 3-4 (f).

mf ukrainica Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992....................Ukraine, Russia, Turkmenistan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027311]
G. u. Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 17, f. 49-50 (Dm).
G. turkmenica Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 18, f. 53-54 (Df).
G. u. Kovblyuk, 2005b: 136, f. 8-13 (m, Sf).
G. u. Ponomarev & Tsvetkov, 2004: 93, f. 8 (f).

m ustyuzhanini Fomichev, Marusik & Omelko, 2013....................Mongolia [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:046044]
G. u. Fomichev, Marusik & Omelko, 2013: 153, f. 1-10 (Dm).

mf utahana Banks, 1904....................USA [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027312]
G. u. Banks, 1904a: 110, f. 26 (Df).
G. u. Platnick & Shadab, 1975a: 23, f. 53-58 (f, Dm).

mf wiehlei Schenkel, 1963....................Russia, Mongolia, China [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027313]
G. w. Schenkel, 1963: 95, f. 55a-c (Dm).
G. w. Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 52, f. 171-172, 177-180 (m, Df).
G. w. Marusik & Logunov, 1995b: 191, f. 69-70 (f).
G. w. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 451, f. 262L, Q (mf).
G. w. Song, Zhu & Zhang, 2004: 126, f. 74A-D (mf).

mf xieae Zhang & Yin, 2001....................China [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:038062]
G. x. Zhang & Yin, 2001b: 480, f. 5-9 (Dmf).
G. x. Song, Zhu & Zhang, 2004: 128, f. 75A-D (mf).

mf zeugitana Pavesi, 1880....................North Africa [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027314]
G. z. Pavesi, 1880b: 352 (Dmf).
G. z. Denis, 1966e: 109, f. 11 (f).
G. z. Di Franco, 1994a: 198, f. 5-8 (mf).

mf zhaoi Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992....................China [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027315]
G. z. Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 41, f. 66, 141-144 (Dmf).
G. z. Song, Chen & Zhu, 1997: 1728, f. 34a-c (f).
G. z. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 451, f. 14F, 263A, I (mf).
G. z. Song, Zhu & Zhang, 2004: 129, f. 76A-D (mf).
G. z. Zhu & Zhang, 2011: 396, f. 283A-D (mf).
G. z. Yin et al., 2012: 1172. f/ 624a-e (mf).

f zonsteini Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992....................Kyrgyzstan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027316]
G. z. Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 53, f. 261-262 (Df).

mf zyuzini Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992....................Kazakhstan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027317]
G. z. Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992: 77, f. 279-284 (Dmf).