The World Spider Catalog, V15 by N. I. Platnick (c) 2000 - 2014 AMNH

Family: ARANEIDAE

Gen. Parawixia F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904 [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidergen:01539]

N.B.: see note under Araneus unistriatus.

Transferred to other genera:
P. affinitata (Roewer, 1942) -- see Molinaranea.
P. aysenensis (Tullgren, 1902) -- see Molinaranea.
P. bicaudata (Nicolet, 1849) -- see Nicolepeira.
P. carenata (Nicolet, 1849) -- see Nicolepeira.
P. cinaberina (Nicolet, 1849) -- see Molinaranea.
P. clymene (Nicolet, 1849) -- see Molinaranea.
P. darlingtoni Bryant, 1945 -- see Ocrepeira.
P. dorsatula (Roewer, 1942) -- see Molinaranea.
P. flavifrons (Nicolet, 1849) -- see Nicolepeira.
P. flaviventris (Nicolet, 1849) -- see Molinaranea.
P. hyadesi (Simon, 1884) -- see Nicolepeira.
P. mastophoroides Mello-Leitão, 1942 -- see Ocrepeira.
P. naevia (Nicolet, 1849) -- see Molinaranea.
P. obliterata (Nicolet, 1849) -- see Molinaranea.
P. tullgreni Caporiacco, 1955 -- see Alpaida.
P. venustula (Keyserling, 1879) -- see Ocrepeira.
P. wagenknechti (Mello-Leitão, 1940) -- see Molinaranea.
P. zigzag Mello-Leitão, 1951 -- see Nicolepeira.

In synonymy:
P. aeronavis (Mello-Leitão, 1947, T from Eriophora) = P. bistriata (Rengger, 1836) (Levi, 1992b: 41).
P. armata (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889) = P. rigida (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889) (Levi, 1992b: 32).
P. bicolorata (Roewer, 1942) = P. bistriata (Rengger, 1836) (Levi, 1992b: 41).
P. burmeisteri (Holmberg, 1876) = P. bistriata (Rengger, 1836) (Mello-Leitão, 1944b: 321, sub Eriophora).
P. cambridgei Bryant, 1940 = P. tredecimnotata F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904 (Levi, 1992b: 18).
P. caputlupi (Doleschall, 1859) = P. dehaani (Doleschall, 1859) (Chrysanthus, 1960: 31, sub Araneus).
P. coronigera (Taczanowski, 1878) = P. audax (Blackwall, 1863) (Levi, 1992b: 37).
P. decemtuberculata (Caporiacco, 1955, T from Eustala) = P. rimosa (Keyserling, 1892) (Levi & Santos, 2013: 223).
P. destrictoides (Strand, 1908) = P. rimosa (Keyserling, 1892) (Levi, 1992b: 16).
P. eriophoroides (Caporiacco, 1954) = P. velutina (Taczanowski, 1878) (Levi, 1992b: 24).
P. eumeniphila Strand, 1915 = P. audax (Blackwall, 1863) (Levi, 1992b: 37).
P. hamata F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904 = P. rimosa (Keyserling, 1892) (Levi, 1992b: 16).
P. kochi albozonata Caporiacco, 1948 = P. kochi (Taczanowski, 1873) (Levi, 1992b: 33).
P. kochi maculilatera Caporiacco, 1948 = P. kochi (Taczanowski, 1873) (Levi, 1992b: 33).
P. kochi nigrohumeralis Caporiacco, 1948 = P. kochi (Taczanowski, 1873) (Levi, 1992b: 33).
P. minas (Keyserling, 1892) = P. kochi (Taczanowski, 1873) (Levi, 1992b: 33).
P. moraballii (Hingston, 1932, T from Cyclosa) = P. kochi (Taczanowski, 1873) (Levi, 1995b: 209).
P. nordenskioldi (Tullgren, 1905) = P. bistriata (Rengger, 1836) (Levi, 1992b: 41).
P. rivalis (Keyserling, 1892, T from Araneus) = P. rigida (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889) (Levi, 1992b: 32).
P. rugosa (Badcock, 1932) = P. audax (Blackwall, 1863) (Levi, 1992b: 37).
P. sermonifera (Mello-Leitão, 1932) = P. bistriata (Rengger, 1836) (Levi, 1992b: 41).
P. setosa (Mello-Leitão, 1948) = P. kochi (Taczanowski, 1873) (Levi, 1992b: 33).
P. tuberculata (Hingston, 1932, T from Cyclosa) = P. kochi (Taczanowski, 1873) (Levi, 1995b: 209).

Nomina dubia:
P. advena (Petrunkevitch, 1911: 277, sub Araneus, replacement name for Epeira adianta Nicolet, 1849: 488, f, Chile, T from Araneus by Archer, 1963: 25) -- Levi, 1991a: 181, contra Archer, 1963: 25.
P. immunda (Nicolet, 1849: 519, f, Chile, originally in Epeira, T from Araneus by Archer, 1963: 26) -- Levi, 1991a: 181, contra Archer, 1963: 26.
P. paraopeba (Mello-Leitão, 1917a: 92, f. 10, f, Brazil, T from Araneus by Levi, 1991a: 178) -- Levi, 1992b: 41 (possible S of P. bistriata).
P. ribeiroi (Mello-Leitão, 1917a: 89, f. 11-12, f, Brazil, T from Araneus by Levi, 1991a: 178) -- Levi, 1992b: 37 (possible S of P. audax).

f acapulco Levi, 1992....................Mexico [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:016888]
P. a. Levi, 1992b: 12, f. 9-13 (Df).

mf audax (Blackwall, 1863)....................Colombia to Argentina [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:016889]
Epeira a. Blackwall, 1863a: 29 (Df).
Epeira meridionalis Keyserling, 1865: 810, pl. 19, f. 19-20 (Df).
Epeira amaurophila Holmberg, 1876: 17 (Df).
Epeira coronigera Taczanowski, 1878b: 157, pl. 1, f. 9 (Dmf).
Epeira duodecimtuberculata Bertkau, 1880a: 91, pl. 2, f. 33 (Df).
Epeira a. Keyserling, 1892: 85, pl. 4, f. 64 (f, Dm).
Araneus a. Simon, 1897e: 2.
Araneus coronigerus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 287.
Aranea a. Strand, 1916b: 113.
Aranea eumeniphila Strand, 1916b: 115 (Dmf).
Araneus rugosus Badcock, 1932: 24 (Df).
Verrucosa a. Mello-Leitão, 1933b: 42.
Araneus a. Franganillo, 1936c: 73, f. 32 (m).
P. a. Mello-Leitão, 1940b: 38 (Tmf from Verrucosa).
P. rugosa Levi, 1991a: 178 (Tf from Araneus).
P. coronigera Levi, 1991a: 179 (Tf from Araneus).
P. a. Levi, 1992b: 36, f. 1-5, 7-8, 136-142 (mf, S).

f barbacoas Levi, 1992....................Colombia, Ecuador [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:016890]
P. b. Levi, 1992b: 14, f. 27-31 (Df).

mf bistriata (Rengger, 1836)....................Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, Argentina [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:016891]
Epeira b. Rengger, 1836: 131 (Df).
Epeira socialis Rengger, 1836: 131 (Df).
Epeira bicolor C. L. Koch, 1838: 57, f. 374 (Df; preoccupied by Walckenaer, 1802, sub Aranea).
Araneus socialis Burmeister, 1872: 210 (Df; preoccupied by Rengger, 1836).
Epeira socialis Holmberg, 1874: 156.
Epeira burmeisteri Holmberg, 1876: 17 (Df).
Epeira socialis Simon, 1891d: 10, pl. 1 (f).
Araneus socialis Simon, 1895a: 801.
Araneus nordenskiöldii Tullgren, 1905: 29, pl. 3, f. 9, pl. 4, f. 9 (Dmf).
Araneus bicolor Petrunkevitch, 1911: 282.
Araneus bistriatus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 282.
Araneus horizontinus Mello-Leitão, 1917a: 87, f. 9 (Dmf).
Eriophora b. Mello-Leitão, 1932d: 124.
Araneus sermoniferus Mello-Leitão, 1932d: 124 (replacement name for A. socialis).
Aranea bicolorata Roewer, 1942a: 837 (replacement name for Epeira bicolor C. L. Koch).
Eriophora b. Mello-Leitão, 1944b: 321 (S).
Eriophora aeronavis Mello-Leitão, 1947b: 241, f. 8 (Df).
P. bicolorata Levi, 1991a: 177 (Tf from Araneus).
P. nordenskjöldii Levi, 1991a: 178 (Tmf from Araneus).
P. sermonifera Levi, 1991a: 178 (Tf from Araneus).
P. b. Levi, 1992b: 41, f. 150-157 (Tmf from Eriophora, S).
P. b. Levi, 2002: 547, f. 191 (m).

m casa Levi, 1992....................Colombia [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:016892]
P. c. Levi, 1992b: 20, f. 52-53 (Dm).

f chubut Levi, 2001....................Chile, Argentina [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:037693]
P. c. Levi, 2001: 470, f. 114-118 (Df).

mf dehaani (Doleschall, 1859)....................India to Philippines, New Guinea [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:016893]
Epeira dehaanii Doleschall, 1859: 33, pl. 2, f. 7 (Df).
Epeira spectabilis Doleschall, 1859: 34, pl. 2, f. 9 (Df).
Epeira caputlupi Doleschall, 1859: 35, pl. 8, f. 6 (Df).
Epeira bogoriensis Doleschall, 1859: 35, pl. 11, f. 7 (Df).
Epeira caputlupi Hasselt, 1877: 52, pl. 4, f. A (f).
Epeira kandarensis Thorell, 1877b: 372 (Df).
Epeira d. Hasselt, 1882: 21.
Epeira submucronata Simon, 1887i: 106 (Df).
Epeira caestata Thorell, 1890a: 122 (Dm).
Araneus caputlupi Pocock, 1897c: 599, pl. 25, f. 8.
Araneus d. Simon, 1899a: 90.
Araneus d. Pocock, 1900a: 225, f. 72 (f).
Araneus submucronatus Simon, 1901k: 59.
Aranea d. Roewer, 1938: 38, f. 26 (f).
Araneus d. Chrysanthus, 1960: 31, f. 24-31 (f, S).
Araneus dehaanii Tikader & Biswas, 1981: 21, f. 19-21 (f).
P. dehaanii Tikader, 1982a: 212, f. 414-418 (Tmf from Araneus).
Araneus d. Feng, 1990: 55, f. 30.1-4 (f).
Araneus d. Chen & Gao, 1990: 44, f. 46 (f).
P. d. Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 582, f. 362a-e (f).
Araneus dehaanii Yin et al., 1997d: 133, f. 48a-i (mf).
P. d. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 302, f. 182E-I (mf).
Araneus d. Yin et al., 2012: 602, f. 290a-h (mf).

f dehaani octopunctigera (Strand, 1911)....................New Ireland [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:016894]
Aranea dehaanii o. Strand, 1911b: 203 (Df).

f dehaani pygituberculata (Strand, 1911)....................New Ireland, Sulawesi [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:016895]
Aranea dehaanii p. Strand, 1911b: 203 (Df).

f dehaani quadripunctigera (Strand, 1911)....................Aru Is. [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:016896]
Aranea dehaanii q. Strand, 1911d: 151 (Df).

mf destricta (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889) *....................Mexico to Panama [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:016897]
Epeira d. O. P.-Cambridge, 1889d: 39, pl. 4, f. 13 (Dm, not f).
Epeira d. Keyserling, 1892: 105, pl. 5, f. 78 (m, Df).
P. d. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 488, pl. 46, f. 9-10 (mf).
Araneus destrictus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 289.
Wixia d. Levi, 1991a: 179 (Tmf from Parawixia).
P. d. Levi, 1992b: 14, f. 19-26 (Tmf from Wixia).

mf divisoria Levi, 1992....................Ecuador, Peru, Brazil, Bolivia [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:016898]
P. d. Levi, 1992b: 28, f. 97-103 (Dmf).

mf guatemalensis (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889)....................Mexico, Guatemala [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:016899]
Epeira g. O. P.-Cambridge, 1889d: 40, pl. 7, f. 7 (Df, not m).
Epeira g. Keyserling, 1892: 112, pl. 6, f. 83a (f, not m).
Epeira merens O. P.-Cambridge, 1899a: 246, pl. 31, f. 2 (Df).
P. g. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 489, pl. 46, f. 14 (f).
Araneus g. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 295.
P. g. Levi, 1992b: 16, f. 40-45 (f, Dm).

f honesta (O. P.-Cambridge, 1899)....................Mexico [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:016900]
Epeira h. O. P.-Cambridge, 1899a: 300, pl. 37, f. 6 (Df).
P. h. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 490, pl. 46, f. 17 (f).
Araneus honestus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 297.
P. h. Levi, 1992b: 12, f. 14-18 (f).

f hoxaea (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889)....................Guatemala to Panama [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:016901]
Epeira h. O. P.-Cambridge, 1889d: 35, pl. 5, f. 6 (Df).
Epeira h. Keyserling, 1892: 87, pl. 4, f. 65 (f).
P. h. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 490, pl. 46, f. 15 (f).
Araneus hoxaeus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 297.
P. h. Levi, 1992b: 26, f. 88-92 (f).

mf hypocrita (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889)....................Guatemala to Brazil [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:016903]
Epeira h. O. P.-Cambridge, 1889d: 38, pl. 5, f. 8 (Dm).
Epeira h. Keyserling, 1892: 109, pl. 5, f. 81 (m).
P. h. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 489, pl. 46, f. 12 (m).
Araneus hypocritus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 297.
P. h. Levi, 1992b: 21, f. 56-62 (m, Df).
P. h. Yin & Kim, 1997: 58, f. 1a-e (mf).

mf inopinata Camargo, 1950....................Brazil [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:016904]
P. i. Camargo, 1950b: 233, pl. II, f. 7-9, pl. III, f. 2-3, pl. IV, f. 4 (Dm).
P. i. Levi, 1992b: 22, f. 69-73 (m, Df).

mf kochi (Taczanowski, 1873)....................Trinidad to Brazil, Guyana, French Guiana [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:016905]
Epeira optuntiae C. L. Koch, 1844: 102, f. 909 (Df, preoccupied).
Epeira kochii Taczanowski, 1873: 134 (Df).
Epeira minas Keyserling, 1892: 95, pl. 5, f. 71 (Dmf).
Araneus k. Simon, 1895a: 775.
Araneus minas Petrunkevitch, 1911: 303.
Turckheimia moraballii Hingston, 1932: 368 (Df).
Turckheimia tuberculata Hingston, 1932: 369 (Df).
P. minas Mello-Leitão, 1943a: 191 (Tmf from Araneus).
P. k. Caporiacco, 1948a: 655 (Tf from Araneus).
P. k. albozonata Caporiacco, 1948a: 655 (Df).
P. k. maculilatera Caporiacco, 1948a: 655 (Df).
P. k. nigrohumeralis Caporiacco, 1948a: 655 (Df).
Molinaranea setosa Mello-Leitão, 1948: 169, f. 11 (Dm).
Araneus setosus Brignoli, 1983c: 263 (Tm because of erroneous generic synonymy).
P. setosa Levi, 1991a: 180 (Tm from Araneus).
P. k. Levi, 1992b: 33, f. 123-135 (f, Sm).
P. k. Levi, 1995b: 209 (S).
P. k. Levi, 2002: 540, f. 86-87 (f).

m maldonado Levi, 1992....................Peru [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:016906]
P. m. Levi, 1992b: 32, f. 115-116 (Dm).

m matiapa Levi, 1992....................Trinidad, Colombia, Peru, Brazil [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:016907]
P. m. Levi, 1992b: 27, f. 93-94 (Dm).
P. m. Levi, 2002: 551, f. 231-232 (m).

mf monticola (Keyserling, 1892)....................Brazil [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:016908]
Epeira m. Keyserling, 1892: 94, pl. 4, f. 70 (Df).
Araneus m. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 304.
Wagneriana m. Mello-Leitão, 1947b: 251 (Tf from Araneus).
P. m. Levi, 1991a: 179 (Tf from Wagneriana).
P. m. Levi, 1992b: 25, f. 81-87 (f, Dm).

mf nesophila Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936....................Costa Rica, Panama [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:016909]
P. n. Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936a: 52, pl. 16, f. 141-143 (Df).
P. n. Levi, 1992b: 22, f. 63-68 (f, Dm).
P. n. Levi, 2002: 555, f. 270 (m).

f ouro Levi, 1992....................Peru, Brazil [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:016910]
P. o. Levi, 1992b: 30, f. 110-114 (Df).

m porvenir Levi, 1992....................Colombia [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:016911]
P. p. Levi, 1992b: 20, f. 54-55 (Dm).

mf rigida (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889)....................Guatemala to Panama [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:016912]
Epeira r. O. P.-Cambridge, 1889d: 36, pl. 5, f. 5 (Df).
Epeira armata O. P.-Cambridge, 1889d: 41, pl. 4, f. 17 (Dm).
Epeira rivalis Keyserling, 1892: 103, pl. 5, f. 76 (Df).
Epeira armata Keyserling, 1892: 107, pl. 5, f. 79 (m).
P. armata F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 489, pl. 46, f. 11 (m).
P. r. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 491, pl. 46, f. 18 (f).
Aranea rivalis F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 519.
Araneus armatus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 280.
Araneus rigidus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 312.
Araneus rivalis Petrunkevitch, 1911: 312.
P. r. Levi, 1992b: 32, f. 117-122 (f, Sm).

mf rimosa (Keyserling, 1892)....................Costa Rica to Bolivia [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:016913]
Epeira r. Keyserling, 1892: 110, pl. 6, f. 82 (Df).
P. hamata F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 489, pl. 46, f. 13 (Dm).
Aranea destrictoides Strand, 1908c: 2 (Df).
Araneus destrictoides Petrunkevitch, 1911: 289.
Araneus hodiernus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 297 (replacement name for P. hamata, preoccupied in Araneus).
Araneus rimosus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 312.
Eustala decemtuberculata Caporiacco, 1955: 342, f. 28a-b (Df) [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:015927].
P. r. Levi, 1992b: 16, f. 6, 32-39 (f, Sm).
P. r. Levi & Santos, 2013: 223 (S).

mf tarapoa Levi, 1992....................Ecuador, Peru, Brazil [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:016914]
P. t. Levi, 1992b: 30, f. 104-109 (Dmf).

m tomba Levi, 1992....................Peru, Brazil [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:016915]
P. t. Levi, 1992b: 27, f. 95-96 (Dm).

mf tredecimnotata F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904....................Mexico to Belize, Greater Antilles [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:016916]
P. t. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 490, pl. 46, f. 16 (Df).
Araneus tredecimnotatus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 319.
P. cambridgei Bryant, 1940: 342, f. 104-106 (Dmf).
P. t. Levi, 1992b: 18, f. 46-51 (f, Sm).

mf undulata (Keyserling, 1892)....................Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:016917]
Mahadeva u. Keyserling, 1892: 67, pl. 3, f. 52 (Df).
Araneus undulatus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 322.
Verrucosa u. Mello-Leitão, 1943a: 195 (Tf from Araneus).
P. u. Levi, 1991a: 180 (Tf from Verrucosa).
P. u. Levi, 1992b: 40, f. 143-149 (f, Dm).

mf velutina (Taczanowski, 1878)....................Colombia to Argentina [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:016918]
Epeira v. Taczanowski, 1878b: 159, pl. 1, f. 10 (Df).
Araneus velutinus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 323.
Araneus eriophoroides Caporiacco, 1954: 111, f. 29, 29a (Df).
P. eriophoroides Levi, 1991a: 178 (Tf from Araneus).
P. v. Levi, 1991a: 180 (Tf from Araneus; Taczanowski's m=Wagneriana jelskii).
P. v. Levi, 1992b: 24, f. 74-80 (f, Dm, S).