The World Spider Catalog, V15 by N. I. Platnick (c) 2000 - 2014 AMNH

Family: THERIDIIDAE

Gen. Phoroncidia Westwood, 1835 [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidergen:00712]

N.B.: considered a senior synonym of Sudabe Karsch, 1879 (removed from S of Theridion Walckenaer, 1805), Trithena Simon, 1867, Oronota Simon, 1871 and Ulesanis L. Koch, 1872 (synonymy not accepted by Wunderlich, 2008b: 273 or Yoshida, 2011: 41) by Levi & Levi, 1962: 31, and of Wibrada Keyserling, 1886 by Levi, 1964d: 72 (through transfer of type species).

Transferred to other genera:
P. flavomaculata (Keyserling, 1891) -- see Dipoena.
P. sudabides (Bösenberg & Strand, 1906) -- see Chrosiothes.

In synonymy:
P. borea Logunov & Marusik, 1992 = P. minschana (Schenkel, 1936) (Logunov, 1992e: 66).
P. brevispinosa O. P.-Cambridge, 1873 = P. thwaitesi O. P.-Cambridge, 1869 (Simon, 1894a: 553-557, S omitted by Roewer).
P. coquimbo Levi, 1964 = P. pennata (Nicolet, 1849) (Sedgwick, 1973: 353).
P. excussa (Urquhart, 1892) = P. quadrata (O. P.-Cambridge, 1879) (Marples, 1955c: 754, sub Ulesanis).
P. lacunosa (Urquhart, 1892) = P. quadrata (O. P.-Cambridge, 1879) (Marples, 1955c: 754, sub Ulesanis).
P. margamarga Levi, 1964 = P. variabilis (Nicolet, 1849) (Sedgwick, 1973: 354).
P. sagaensis (Bösenberg & Strand, 1906, T from Gasteracantha) = P. pilula (Karsch, 1879) (Yaginuma, 1960: 35, sub Oronota).

f aciculata Thorell, 1877....................Sulawesi [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007876]
P. a. Thorell, 1877b: 455 (Df).

mf aculeata Westwood, 1835 *....................India, China [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007877]
P. a. Westwood, 1835: 453, pl. 22, f. 19 (Df).
P. a. Levi & Levi, 1962: 57, f. 235-237 (f, Dm).

f alishanensis Chen, 1990....................Taiwan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007878]
P. alishanense Chen, 1990: 20, f. 1A-C (Df).

mf altiventris Yoshida, 1985....................Japan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007879]
P. a. Yoshida, 1985c: 8, f. 1-2, 6-7 (Df).
P. a. Chikuni, 1989b: 39, f. 46 (f, Dm).
P. a. Yoshida, 2009b: 365, f. 87-89 (m).

f alveolata (Simon, 1903)....................Equatorial Guinea [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007880]
Ulesanis alveolatus Simon, 1903e: 76 (Df).

mf americana (Emerton, 1882)....................USA, Canada, Cuba, Jamaica [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007881]
Ulesanis a. Emerton, 1882: 28, pl. 6, f. 1 (Dmf).
Ulesanis a. Keyserling, 1886b: 17, pl. 11, f. 142 (Df).
Ulesanis a. Kaston, 1948: 96, f. 112-119 (m).
Ulesanis a. Archer, 1950: 39, pl. IV, f. 2 (m).
Oronota a. Levi, 1955c: 334, f. 1-8 (mf).
Ulesanis a. Levi & Levi, 1962: 57, f. 244-245 (m).
P. a. Levi, 1964d: 74.
P. a. Paquin & Dupérré, 2003: 217, f. 2426-2428 (mf).
P. a. Agnarsson, Coddington & Knoflach, 2007: 352, f. 49 (m).

f argoides (Doleschall, 1857)....................Amboina [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007882]
Plectana a. Doleschall, 1857: 425 (Df).
Plectana a. Doleschall, 1859: pl. 8, f. 2 (f).
Micrathena a. Butler, 1873b: 429.
P. a. Thorell, 1881: 158.

f aurata O. P.-Cambridge, 1877....................Madagascar [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007883]
P. a. O. P.-Cambridge, 1877c: 31, pl. 7, f. 9 (Df).
P. a. Butler, 1882b: 766, pl. 57, f. 4 (f).
P. a. Simon, 1894a: 553, f. 568 (f).

f bifrons (Simon, 1895)....................Philippines [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007884]
Ulesanis b. Simon, 1895g: 147 (Df).

f biocellata (Simon, 1893)....................Brazil [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007885]
Trithena b. Simon, 1893d: 323, pl. 7, f. 4 (Df).
P. b. Levi, 1964d: 81, f. 67-71 (f).

m bukolana Barrion & Litsinger, 1995....................Philippines [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007886]
P. b. Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 417, f. 247a-g (Dm).

mf capensis (Simon, 1895)....................South Africa [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007887]
Ulesanis c. Simon, 1895g: 147 (Dmf).

f concave Yin & Xu, 2012....................China [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:046188]
P. c. Yin & Xu, in Yin et al., 2012: 365, f. 152a-e (Df).

m coracina (Simon, 1899)....................Sumatra [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007888]
Ulesanis c. Simon, 1899a: 81 (Dm).

f cribrata (Simon, 1893)....................Paraguay [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007889]
Trithena c. Simon, 1893d: 323, pl. 7, f. 5 (Df).
P. c. Levi, 1964d: 79, f. 52-56 (f).

f crustula Zhu, 1998....................China [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007890]
P. c. Zhu, 1998: 29, f. 12A-D (Df).
P. c. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 127, f. 66C-D (f).

mf cygnea (Hickman, 1951)....................Tasmania [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007891]
Ulesanis c. Hickman, 1951b: 11, f. 15-20 (Dmf).
P. c. Brignoli, 1983c: 409.

f eburnea (Simon, 1895)....................South Africa [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007892]
Ulesanis e. Simon, 1895g: 147 (Df).

m ellenbergeri Berland, 1913....................Gabon [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007893]
P. e. Berland, 1913a: 75, f. 1-3 (Dm).

m escalerai (Simon, 1903)....................Equatorial Guinea [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007894]
Ulesanis e. Simon, 1903e: 75 (Dm).

f flavolimbata (Simon, 1893)....................Ecuador [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007895]
Trithena f. Simon, 1893d: 322, pl. 7, f. 3 (Df).
Trithena f. Simon, 1894a: 555, f. 569 (f).
P. f. Levi, 1964d: 81, f. 57-61 (f).

mf floripara Gao & Li, 2014....................China [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:046690]
P. f. Gao & Li, 2014: 61, f. 47A-D, 48A-C, 49A-E, 50A-D (Dmf).

f fumosa (Nicolet, 1849)....................Chile [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007896]
Gasteracantha f. Nicolet, 1849: 477 (Df).
Glyptogona f. Simon, 1895a: 867.
P. f. Levi, 1996b: 146 (Tf from Glyptogona).

f gayi (Nicolet, 1849)....................Chile [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007897]
Gasteracantha g. Nicolet, 1849: 473, pl. 5, f. 4 (Df).
Ulesanis g. Simon, 1894a: 554.
Glyptogona g. Simon, 1895a: 867.
P. g. Levi, 1996b: 146 (Tf from Glyptogona).

f gira Levi, 1964....................Venezuela [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007898]
P. g. Levi, 1964d: 84, f. 82-86 (Df).

f hankiewiczi (Kulczyn'ski, 1911)....................Portugal, Spain, France [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007899]
Ulesanis h. Kulczyn'ski, 1911a: 55, pl. 2, f. 71-72 (Df).

f hexacantha Thorell, 1890....................Sumatra [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007900]
P. h. Thorell, 1890a: 240 (Df).

f jacobsoni (Reimoser, 1925)....................Sumatra [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007901]
Ulesanis j. Reimoser, 1925: 92 (Df).

mf kibonotensis (Tullgren, 1910)....................East Africa [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007902]
Ulesanis k. Tullgren, 1910: 136, pl. 2, f. 54 (Dm).
Ulesanis k. Caporiacco, 1949a: 374, f. 34a-b (Df).

f kibonotensis concolor (Caporiacco, 1949)....................Kenya [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007903]
Ulesanis k. c. Caporiacco, 1949a: 374 (Df).
P. k. c. Brignoli, 1983c: 409.

mf levii Chrysanthus, 1963....................New Guinea [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007904]
P. l. Chrysanthus, 1963: 735, f. 44-48 (Df).
P. l. Chrysanthus, 1975: 31, f. 121-123 (Dm).

m longiceps (Keyserling, 1886)....................Brazil [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007905]
Wibrada l. Keyserling, 1886b: 22, pl. 11, f. 145 (Dm; N.B.: erroneously listed as W. longipes in Roewer).
Vibrada l. Simon, 1894a: 560, f. 570 (Df).
Wibrada l. Levi & Levi, 1962: 57, f. 240-243 (m).
P. l. Levi, 1964d: 72, f. 12-17 (m).

mf lygeana (Walckenaer, 1841)....................Malaysia, Sumatra, Java, Borneo [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007906]
Plectana l. Walckenaer, 1841: 197 (Df).
P. acrosomoides Hasselt, 1882: 30, pl. 1, f. 7, pl. 4, f. 2-3 (Df).
P. l. Thorell, 1890a: 243 (Dm).
P. l. Simon, 1894a: 553, f. 566 (f).
P. l. Workman, 1896: 58, pl. 58 (f).
P. l. Archer, 1950: 39, pl. IV, f. 5 (m).
P. l. Bristowe, 1976b: 11, f. 7-14 (mf).
P. l. Yoshida & Koh, 2011: 75, f. 1-3, 20-27 (mf).

f maindroni (Simon, 1905)....................India [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007907]
Ulesanis m. Simon, 1905a: 177 (Df).

mf minschana (Schenkel, 1936)....................Russia, China [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007908]
Ulesanis m. Schenkel, 1936b: 49, f. 15 (Dmf).
P. borea Logunov & Marusik, 1992: 95, f. 3-9, 12 (Dmf).
P. minshana Logunov, 1992e: 66 (S).

f minuta (Spassky, 1932)....................Georgia, Azerbaijan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007909]
Ulesanis m. Spassky, 1932b: 978, f. 9 (Df).
P. m. Logunov & Marusik, 1992: 93, f. 1-2, 10-11 (f).

mf moyobamba Levi, 1964....................Peru, Brazil [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007910]
Wibrada longiceps Archer, 1950: 27, pl. IV, f. 4 (m, misidentified).
P. m. Levi, 1964d: 70, f. 1-5 (Dm).
P. m. Buckup & Marques, 1989: 125, f. 4-11 (m, Df).

f musiva (Simon, 1880)....................New Caledonia [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007911]
Oroodes m. Simon, 1880i: 171 (Df).

mf nasuta (O. P.-Cambridge, 1873)....................Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Japan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007912]
Stegosoma n. O. P.-Cambridge, 1873d: 127, pl. 14, f. 11 (Dmf).
Ulesanis n. Simon, 1894a: 554.
Ulesanis nasutus Yoshida, 2011: 43, f. 1-6 (f).

f nicoleti (Roewer, 1942)....................Chile [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007913]
Gasteracantha pallida Nicolet, 1849: 476 (Df; preoccupied by C. L. Koch, 1845).
Glyptogona pallida Simon, 1895a: 867.
Glyptogona n. Roewer, 1942a: 891 (replacement name).
P. n. Levi, 1996b: 146 (Tf from Glyptogona).

m nicoleti Levi, 1964....................Chile [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007914]
P. n. Levi, 1964d: 75, f. 24-26 (Dm; N.B.: if actually congeneric with above, will need replacement name).

f oahuensis (Simon, 1900)....................Hawaii [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007915]
Ulesanis o. Simon, 1900a: 460, pl. 16, f. 11 (Df).

mf paradoxa (Lucas, 1846)....................Europe, North Africa [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007916]
Epeira p. Lucas, 1846: 251, pl. 15, f. 7 (Dm).
Plectana p. Walckenaer, 1847a: 477.
Oroodes paradoxus Simon, 1873a: 128 (Df).
Sclerogaster pusillus Cavanna, 1876: 90, pl. 1, f. 3-11 (Dmf).
Ulesanis p. Simon, 1914a: 273, 300.
Oronota p. Levi, 1955c: 334, f. 9 (m).
P. p. Brignoli, 1969c: 266, f. 1, 4-5 (m).
P. p. Thaler & Noflatscher, 1990: 173, f. 14-15 (m).
P. p. Vanuytven, 1991: 103, f. 1a-f (mf).
Ulesanis p. Wunderlich, 2008b: 273, f. 222-225 (m).
P. p. Le Peru, 2011: 459, f. 757 (mf).
P. p. Kunt et al., 2012: 648, f. 17a-h (f).

f pennata (Nicolet, 1849)....................Chile [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007917]
Gasteracantha p. Nicolet, 1849: 474, pl. 5, f. 5 (Df).
Ulesanis p. Simon, 1894a: 556.
Glyptogona p. Simon, 1895a: 867.
P. coquimbo Levi, 1964d: 77, f. 38-41 (Df).
P. p. Sedgwick, 1973: 353 (Tf from Glyptogona, S).

mf personata (L. Koch, 1872)....................Samoa, Fiji, Lord Howe Is. [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007918]
Ulesanis p. L. Koch, 1872a: 243, pl. 20, f. 3 (Df).
Ulesanis chelys L. Koch, 1872a: 244, pl. 20, f. 4 (Df).
Ulesanis p. Berland, 1929b: 48, f. 19 (f. Dm).

mf pilula (Karsch, 1879)....................China, Korea, Japan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007919]
Sudabe p. Karsch, 1879g: 63 (Df).
Theridion p. Bösenberg & Strand, 1906: 146, pl. 12, f. 268 (f).
Gasteracantha sagaensis Bösenberg & Strand, 1906: 239, pl. 15, f. 426 (Dm).
Oronota p. Yaginuma, 1956d: 26 (Tf from Theridion).
Oronota p. Yaginuma, 1960: 35 (S).
Theridion p. Komatsu, 1961a: 22, f. 12A-E (f).
P. p. Yaginuma, 1965a: 34.
P. p. Yoshida, 1979: 46, f. 1-3 (f, Dm).
P. p. Yaginuma, 1986a: 44, f. 23.6 (mf).
P. p. Yoshida, 1989b: 318, f. 4K-L (m).
P. p. Chikuni, 1989b: 39, f. 45 (mf).
P. p. Zhu, 1998: 27, f. 11A-D (mf).
P. p. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 127, f. 66E-G (mf).
P. p. Namkung, 2002: 121, f. 13.39a-b (mf).
P. p. Yoshida, 2003a: 52, f. 109-111, 557 (mf).
P. p. Namkung, 2003: 123, f. 13.39a-b (mf).
P. p. Yoshida, 2009b: 365, f. 84-85 (m).
Ulesanis p. Yoshida, 2011: 42.
P. p. Yin et al., 2012: 367, f. 153a-c (f).

f pilula (Simon, 1895)....................Zanzibar [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007920]
Ulesanis p. Simon, 1895g: 146 (Df; N.B.: if actually congeneric with above, will need replacement name).

mf piratini Rodrigues & Marques, 2010....................Brazil [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:044013]
P. p. Rodrigues & Marques, 2010: 248, f. 1-9 (Dmf).

mf pukeiwa (Marples, 1955)....................New Zealand [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007921]
Ulesanis p. Marples, 1955c: 756, f. 2C-D, 3B (Dmf).
P. p. Brignoli, 1983c: 409.

mf puketoru (Marples, 1955)....................New Zealand [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007922]
Ulesanis p. Marples, 1955c: 758, f. 2B, 3C (Dmf).
P. p. Brignoli, 1983c: 409.

f puyehue Levi, 1967....................Chile [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007923]
P. p. Levi, 1967a: 18, f. 23-26 (Df).

f quadrata (O. P.-Cambridge, 1879)....................New Zealand [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007924]
Stegosoma quadratum O. P.-Cambridge, 1879d: 698, pl. 53. f. 15 (Df).
Stegosoma lacunosa Urquhart, 1893a: 169 (Df).
Stegosoma excussa Urquhart, 1893a: 171 (Df).
Ulesanis q. Dalmas, 1917a: 358.
Ulesanis lacunosa Dalmas, 1917a: 358.
Ulesanis excussa Dalmas, 1917a: 358.
Ulesanis quadratum Marples, 1955c: 754, f. 2A, 3A (Dm, S).

f quadrispinella Strand, 1907....................Madagascar [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007925]
P. q. Strand, 1907d: 729 (Df).
P. q. Strand, 1907o: 33 (Df).

m ravot Levi, 1964....................Venezuela [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007926]
P. r. Levi, 1964d: 76, f. 27-29 (Dm).

mf reimoseri Levi, 1964....................Brazil [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007927]
P. r. Levi, 1964d: 83, f. 77-81 (Df).
P. r. Rodrigues & Marques, 2010: 250, f. 10-15 (Dm).

mf rotunda (Keyserling, 1890)....................Queensland, Lord Howe Is., Samoa [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007928]
Wirada r. Keyserling, 1890: 236, pl. 21, f. 4 (Df).
Ulesanis r. Rainbow, 1920b: 243, pl. 29, f. 45 (f, Dm).
Ulesanis r. Berland, 1929b: 49, f. 20-21 (f).

f rubens Thorell, 1899....................Cameroon [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007929]
P. r. Thorell, 1899: 28 (Df).

f rubroargentea Berland, 1913....................Madagascar [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007930]
P. r. Berland, 1913a: 77, f. 4 (Df).

m rubromaculata (Keyserling, 1886)....................Brazil [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007931]
Heribertus rubromaculatus Keyserling, 1886b: 28, pl. 11, f. 148 (Dm).
Ulesanis r. Simon, 1894a: 554.
P. r. Levi, 1964d: 72, f. 21-23 (m).

mf ryukyuensis Yoshida, 1979....................Taiwan, Ryukyu Is. [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007932]
P. r. Yoshida, 1979: 49, f. 7-11 (Dmf).
P. r. Yaginuma, 1986a: 44, f. 23.7 (mf).
P. r. Yoshida, 2003a: 53, f. 112-116 (mf).
P. r. Yoshida, 2009b: 365, f. 5-6, 86 (m).
Ulesanis r. Yoshida, 2011: 44, f. 7-16 (mf).

f saboya Levi, 1964....................Colombia [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007933]
P. s. Levi, 1964d: 82, f. 72-76 (Df).

f scutellata (Taczanowski, 1879)....................Peru [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007934]
Tricantha s. Taczanowski, 1879: 122, pl. 1, f. 35 (Df).
P. s. Levi, 1964d: 79, f. 42-45 (f).

mf scutula (Nicolet, 1849)....................Bolivia, Chile [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007935]
Gasteracantha s. Nicolet, 1849: 478, pl. 5, f. 6 (Df).
Gasteracantha caduceator Nicolet, 1849: 479 (Df).
Gasteracantha violaceata Nicolet, 1849: 479 (Df).
Gasteracantha maculata Nicolet, 1849: 480 (Df).
Gasteracantha porcellanae Nicolet, 1849: 480 (Df).
Gasteracantha venusta Nicolet, 1849: 480 (Df).
Gasteracantha scitula Nicolet, 1849: 481 (Df).
Gasteracantha ventrosa Nicolet, 1849: 481 (Df).
Gasteracantha columnata Nicolet, 1849: 482 (Df).
Gasteracantha inflata Nicolet, 1849: 482 (Df).
Gasteracantha punctata Nicolet, 1849: 483 (Df).
Gasteracantha minuta Nicolet, 1849: 483 (Df).
Ulesanis s. Keyserling, 1886b: 18, pl. 11, f. 143 (f).
Ulesanis s. Tullgren, 1902: 16, pl. 1, f. 5 (Dm).
P. s. Levi, 1964d: 73, f. 18-20 (m).
P. s. Levi, 1967a: 17, f. 19-22 (f).

mf septemaculeata O. P.-Cambridge, 1873....................Sri Lanka [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007936]
P. s. O. P.-Cambridge, 1873d: 124, pl. 14, f. 8 (Dmf).

f sextuberculata (Keyserling, 1890)....................Queensland [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007937]
Ulesanis s. Keyserling, 1890: 235, pl. 21, f. 3 (Df).

f sjostedti Tullgren, 1910....................Tanzania [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007938]
P. sjöstedti Tullgren, 1910: 137 (Df).

f spissa (Nicolet, 1849)....................Chile [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007939]
Gasteracantha s. Nicolet, 1849: 475 (Df).
Glyptogona s. Simon, 1895a: 867.
P. s. Levi, 1996b: 146 (Tf from Glyptogona).

mf splendida Thorell, 1899....................West Africa [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007940]
P. s. Thorell, 1899: 27 (Df).
P. s. Kritscher, 1957: 270, f. 29 (Dm).

f studo Levi, 1964....................Peru, Brazil [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007941]
P. s. Levi, 1964d: 71, f. 6-11 (Df).

mf testudo (O. P.-Cambridge, 1873)....................India, Sri Lanka [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007942]
Stegosoma t. O. P.-Cambridge, 1873d: 126, pl. 14, f. 10 (Df).
Ulesanis t. Simon, 1894a: 555.
Ulesanis t. Archer, 1950: 39, pl. IV, f. 3 (Dm).

mf thwaitesi O. P.-Cambridge, 1869....................Sri Lanka [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007943]
P. thwaitesii O. P.-Cambridge, 1869a: 270, pl. 9, f. 17-22 (Df).
P. t. O. P.-Cambridge, 1873d: 123 (Dm).
P. brevispinosa O. P.-Cambridge, 1873d: 124, pl. 14, f. 7 (Df).
P. t. Simon, 1894a: 553, f. 567 (f, S).

m tina Levi, 1964....................Brazil [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007944]
P. t. Levi, 1964d: 78, f. 35-37 (Dm).
P. t. Coddington, 1990: 18, f. 97 (m).

f tricuspidata (Blackwall, 1863)....................Brazil [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007945]
Plectana t. Blackwall, 1863a: 38 (Df).
Tricantha tricornis Simon, 1864: 293.
Trithena inuncans Simon, 1867: 23 (Df).
Phoroncidia t. Keyserling, 1886b: 24, pl. 11, f. 146 (f).
Trithena t. Simon, 1893d: 322, pl. 7, f. 2 (f).
Trithena t. Levi & Levi, 1962: 57, f. 246-247 (f).
P. t. Levi, 1964d: 80, f. 46-51 (f).

mf trituberculata (Hickman, 1951)....................Tasmania [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007946]
Ulesanis t. Hickman, 1951b: 14, f. 21-25 (Dmf).
P. t. Brignoli, 1983c: 409.

f triunfo Levi, 1964....................Mexico to Costa Rica [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007947]
Tricantha tricornis F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 540, pl. 51, f. 26 (f, misidentified).
P. t. Levi, 1964d: 82, f. 62-65 (Df).

m truncatula (Strand, 1909)....................South Africa [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007948]
Ulesanis t. Strand, 1909g: 564 (Dm).

f umbrosa (Nicolet, 1849)....................Chile [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007949]
Gasteracantha u. Nicolet, 1849: 474 (Df).
Glyptogona u. Simon, 1895a: 867.
P. u. Levi, 1996b: 146 (Tf from Glyptogona).

mf variabilis (Nicolet, 1849)....................Chile [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:007950]
Gasteracantha v. Nicolet, 1849: 476 (Df).
Glyptogona v. Simon, 1895a: 867.
P. margamarga Levi, 1964d: 77, f. 30-34 (Df).
P. margamarga Levi, 1967a: 18, f. 16-18 (Dm).
P. v. Sedgwick, 1973: 354 (Tf from Glyptogona, Sm).