The World Spider Catalog, V15 by N. I. Platnick (c) 2000 - 2014 AMNH

Family: GNAPHOSIDAE

Gen. Scotophaeus Simon, 1893 [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidergen:02474]

N.B.: not a junior synonym of Herpyllus Hentz, 1832 (Platnick & Shadab, 1977b: 3).

Transferred to other genera:
S. asiaticus Charitonov, 1946 -- see Asiadabus.
S. blepharotrichus Strand, 1915 -- see Urozelotes.
S. chohanius Patel & Patel, 1975 -- see Trachyzelotes.
S. cultior Kulczyn'ski, 1899 -- see Macarophaeus.
S. guatemalensis F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1899 -- see Apodrassodes.
S. himalayaensis Hu, 2001 -- see Xizangia.
S. leoi Barrion & Litsinger, 1995 -- see Systaria under Miturgidae.
S. loricatus (L. Koch, 1866) -- see Sosticus.
S. mundulus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1872) -- see Odontodrassus.
S. pictus F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1899 -- see Herpyllus.
S. quilpuensis Simon, 1902 -- see Apodrassodes.
S. scrutatus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1872) -- see Zelotes.
S. senilis (O. P.-Cambridge, 1872) -- see Poecilochroa.
S. striatus Kishida, 1932 -- see Drassodes.
S. varius Simon, 1893 -- see Macarophaeus.
S. voluntarius Chamberlin, 1920 -- see Nodocion.
S. vulpinus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1874) -- see Megamyrmaekion.
S. walteri Roewer, 1928 -- see Haplodrassus.
S. yunnanensis Schenkel, 1963 -- see Odontodrassus.

In synonymy:
S. californicus (Banks, 1904, T from Drassodes) = S. blackwalli (Thorell, 1871) (Ubick & Roth, 1973a: 4, sub Herpyllus).
S. mingcaii Yin, Zhang & Bao, 2003 = S. hunan Zhang, Song & Zhu, 2003 (Song, Zhu & Zhang, 2004: 211).
S. pius (Chamberlin, 1920, T from Herpyllus) = S. blackwalli (Thorell, 1871) (Ubick & Roth, 1973a: 4, sub Herpyllus).
S. simaoensis Zhang, Yin & Bao, 2003 = S. xizang Zhang, Song & Zhu, 2003 (Song, Zhu & Zhang, 2004: 214).
S. subcorticis Levy, 1999 = S. peninsularis Roewer, 1928 (Chatzaki, Thaler & Mylonas, 2002b: 620).

Nomen dubium:
S. mengei (Simon, 1878a: 157, replacement name for Drassus rubrens Menge, 1850: 62, f, Germany) -- Grimm, 1985: 287.

f aculeatus Simon, 1914....................France [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027847]
S. a. Simon, 1914a: 149, 212, f. 271 (Df).

f affinis Caporiacco, 1949....................Kenya [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027848]
S. a. Caporiacco, 1949a: 429, f. 66 (Df).

f afghanicus Roewer, 1961....................Afghanistan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027849]
S. a. Roewer, 1961c: 23, f. 38-39, 74 (Df).

f arboricola Jézéquel, 1965....................Ivory Coast [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027850]
S. a. Jézéquel, 1965: 303, f. 14 (Df).

f bersebaensis Strand, 1915....................Namibia [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027851]
S. b. Strand, 1915b: 90 (Df).

mf bharatae Gajbe, 1989....................India [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027852]
S. b. Gajbe, 1989: 557, f. 1-8 (Dmf).

m bifidus Schmidt & Krause, 1994....................Cape Verde Is. [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027853]
S. b. Schmidt & Krause, 1994c: 6, f. 1-2 (Dm).

mf blackwalli (Thorell, 1871)....................Cosmopolitan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027854]
Drassus sericeus Blackwall, 1861a: 111, pl. 6, f. 67 (f, misidentified).
Drassus blackwallii Thorell, 1871a: 179 (Df).
Drassus gotlandicus Thorell, 1871a: 180 (Df).
Drassus ravidus Pavesi, 1873a: 119, f. 2 (Dm).
Drassus gotlandicus Menge, 1875: 378, pl. 65, f. 215 (f, Dm).
Drassus b. Simon, 1878a: 148 (m).
Drassus furtadoi Simon, 1883: 275, pl. 8, f. 8-9 (Dmf).
Drassus b. Becker, 1896: 259, pl. 16, f. 26 (mf).
Drassus immundus Kulczyn'ski, in Chyzer & Kulczyn'ski, 1897: 213, pl. 8, f. 46 (Df).
S. b. Kulczyn'ski, 1898: 55.
Drassus b. Bösenberg, 1902: 298, pl. 28, f. 438 (mf).
Drassodes californica Banks, 1904b: 338, pl. 39, f. 28 (Dm).
Drassodes b. Lessert, 1910b: 56, f. 49-50 (mf).
S. b. Simon, 1914a: 147, 150, 212, f. 266, 275 (mf).
Herpyllus pius Chamberlin, 1919b: 6, pl. 2, f. 4 (Df).
Scotophaeus furtadoi Reimoser, 1919: 204.
S. b. Reimoser, 1937a: 22, f. 51 (mf).
S. b. Tullgren, 1946: 110, f. 32C, pl. 18, f. 231-233 (mf).
S. b. Schenkel, 1950b: 38, f. 5a-b (m).
S. b. Locket & Millidge, 1951: 104, f. 50f, 55A, C (mf).
Herpyllus b. Braendegaard, 1966: 105, f. 90-91 (mf).
Herpyllus b. Ubick & Roth, 1973a: 4 (S).
S. b. Platnick & Shadab, 1977b: 41, f. 123-129 (mf).
S. b. Grimm, 1985: 172, f. 18a, 199-200, 202 (mf).
S. b. Roberts, 1985: 70, f. 25b (mf).
S. b. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 438, f. 1154 (mf).
S. b. Platnick & Dondale, 1992: 278, f. 441-444 (mf).
S. b. Noordam, 1992: 8 (mf).
S. b. Roberts, 1995: 108, f. (mf).
S. b. Roberts, 1998: 112, f. (mf).
S. b. Levy, 1999d: 438, f. 19, 22-23 (f; not m, =S. peninsularis).
S. b. Hu, 2001: 271, f. 155.6-7 (m).
S. b. Almquist, 2006: 419, f. 360a-h (mf).
S. b. Lecigne, 2013: 186, f. 4E-F (m).

mf blackwalli isabellinus (Simon, 1873)....................Corsica, Italy, Croatia [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027855]
Drassus i. Simon, 1873a: 164 (Dm).
Drassus i. Simon, 1878a: 150 (Df).
S. i. Lessert, 1904: 286, pl. 5, f. 6.
S. b. i. Simon, 1914a: 150, 212.

f blackwalli politus (Simon, 1878)....................France [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027856]
Drassus politus Simon, 1878a: 142, pl. 14, f. 5 (Df).
S. b. p. Simon, 1914a: 150, 212.

f brolemanni Simon, 1914....................France [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027857]
S. b. Simon, 1914a: 146, 211, f. 261 (Df).

m cecileae Barrion & Litsinger, 1995....................Philippines [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027858]
S. c. Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 197, f. 115a-f (Dm).

f correntinus Mello-Leitão, 1945....................Argentina [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027859]
S. c. Mello-Leitão, 1945b: 258, f. 43 (Df).

m crinitus Jézéquel, 1965....................Ivory Coast [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027860]
S. c. Jézéquel, 1965: 302, f. 13a-b (Dm).

mf dispulsus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1885)....................Tajikistan, Mongolia [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027862]
Drassus d. O. P.-Cambridge, 1885b: 11, pl. 1, f. 8 (Dmf).
Drassodes d. Schenkel, 1936b: 252, f. 82 (f).
S. d. Reimoser, 1935: 173.

f domesticus Tikader, 1962....................India [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027863]
S. d. Tikader, 1962e: 570, f. 1a-c (Df).
S. d. Tikader & Biswas, 1981: 67, f. 115-117 (f).
S. d. Tikader, 1982b: 378, f. 195-197 (f).

f fabrisae Caporiacco, 1950....................Italy [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027864]
S. f. Caporiacco, 1950a: 12, f. 1 (Df).

mf faisalabadiensis Ghafoor & Beg, 2002....................Pakistan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:040623]
S. f. Ghafoor & Beg, 2002b: 529, f. 2A-D (Dmf).

mf gridellii Caporiacco, 1928....................Canary Is. [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027865]
S. g. Caporiacco, 1928a: 240 (Dmf).

m hierro Schmidt, 1977....................Canary Is. [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027866]
S. h. Schmidt, 1977: 57, f. 4 (Dm).

mf hunan Zhang, Song & Zhu, 2003....................China, Japan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:039004]
S. h. Zhang, Song & Zhu, 2003: 71, f. 2A-E (Dmf).
S. mingcaii Yin, Zhang & Bao, in Zhang, Yin & Bao, 2003: 638, f. 7-11 (Df).
S. h. Song, Zhu & Zhang, 2004: 211, f. 125A-E (mf, S).
S. h. Yin et al., 2012: 1198, f. 639a-f (mf).
S. h. Kamura, 2014: 63, f. 1-4 (f).

mf insularis Berland, 1936....................Cape Verde Is., Greece [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027867]
S. i. Berland, 1936: 75, f. 14-16 (Dm).
S. i. Schmidt, Geisthardt & Piepho, 1994: 101, f. 13 (Df).

f invisus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1885)....................Yarkand [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027868]
Drassus i. O. P.-Cambridge, 1885b: 9, pl. 1, f. 6 (Df).
S. i. Reimoser, 1935: 173.

m jacksoni Berland, 1936....................Cape Verde Is. [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027869]
S. j. Berland, 1936: 74, f. 12-13 (Dm).

f jinlin Song, Zhu & Zhang, 2004....................China [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:040624]
S. domesticus Hu & Li, 1987b: 304, f. 33.1-2 (f, misidentified).
S. domesticus Hu, 2001: 270, f. 154.1-2 (f, misidentified).
S. j. Song, Zhu & Zhang, 2004: 213, 333, f. 126A-B (Df).

mf kalimpongensis Gajbe, 1992....................India [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027870]
S. k. Gajbe, 1992a: 308, f. 16-21 (Dmf).

j lamperti Strand, 1906....................Central Africa [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027871]
S. l. Strand, 1906c: 28 (Dj).

f lindbergi Roewer, 1961....................Afghanistan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027873]
S. l. Roewer, 1961c: 24, f. 40-41, 75 (Df).

f madalasae Tikader & Gajbe, 1977....................India [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027874]
S. m. Tikader & Gajbe, 1977a: 18, f. 3A-D (Df).
S. m. Tikader, 1982b: 375, f. 187-191 (f).

f marleyi Tucker, 1923....................South Africa [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027875]
S. m. Tucker, 1923: 386, pl. 10, f. 84 (Df).

f mauckneri Schmidt, 1956....................Canary Is. [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027876]
S. m. Schmidt, 1956e: 144, f. 3 (Df; N.B.: possibly regarded as Macarophaeus by Wunderlich, 2011: 49).

f merkaricola Strand, 1907....................India [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027877]
S. m. Strand, 1907k: 120, f. 48 (Df).

f meruensis Tullgren, 1910....................East Africa [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027878]
S. m. Tullgren, 1910: 106, pl. 1, f. 17 (Df).

f microdon Caporiacco, 1933....................Libya [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027879]
S. m. Caporiacco, 1933: 317, f. 2 (Df).

mf musculus (Simon, 1878)....................France, Madeira, Salvages [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027880]
Drassus m. Simon, 1878a: 152 (Df).
S. m. Simon, 1914a: 148, 212, f. 269-270 (f, Dm).
S. m. Schenkel, 1938a: 4, f. 1 (m).
Herpyllus m. Denis, 1963a: 39, f. 6 (Tf from Scotophaeus, rejected).

m nanoides Wunderlich, 2011....................Portugal [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:043973]
S. n. Wunderlich, 2011: 54, f. 162-165 (Dm).

mf nanus Wunderlich, 1995....................Austria [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027881]
S. n. Wunderlich, 1995E: 743, f. 1-2, 6-8 (Dmf).

f natalensis Lawrence, 1938....................South Africa [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027882]
S. n. Lawrence, 1938a: 477, f. 13 (Df).

mf nigrosegmentatus (Simon, 1895)....................Mongolia, Karakorum [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027883]
Drassodes n. Simon, 1895c: 332 (Dj).
S. n. Caporiacco, 1934a: 133, pl. 1, f. 11 (Dmf).

f nossibeensis Strand, 1907....................Madagascar [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027884]
S. n. Strand, 1907d: 727 (Df).
S. n. Strand, 1907o: 17 (Df).

f nyrensis Simon, 1909....................East Africa [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027885]
S. n. Simon, 1909c: 34 (Df).

f parvioculis Strand, 1906....................Ethiopia [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027886]
S. p. Strand, 1906b: 611 (Df).

mf peninsularis Roewer, 1928....................Greece, Crete, Israel [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027887]
S. p. Roewer, 1928b: 108, pl. 1, f. 14 (Df).
S. blackwalli Levy, 1999d: 438, f. 20-21 (m, misidentified).
S. subcorticis Levy, 1999d: 440, f. 24-25 (Df).
S. p. Chatzaki, Thaler & Mylonas, 2002b: 620, f. 48-49 (f, S).
S. p. Bosmans et al., 2013: 13, f. 60-63 (mf).

f poonaensis Tikader, 1982....................India [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027888]
S. p. Tikader, 1982b: 380, f. 198-202 (Df).
S. p. Gajbe, 2007: 466, f. 115-119 (f).

mf pretiosus (L. Koch, 1873)....................New Zealand [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027889]
Drassus p. L. Koch, 1873: 385, pl. 30, f. 3-4 (Dmf).
Drassodes p. Dalmas, 1917a: 349, f. 28 (mf).
S. p. Dalmas, 1917a: 349.
S. p. Forster, 1979: 65, f. 13, 162, 178, 270-274 (mf).

f purcelli Tucker, 1923....................South Africa [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027890]
S. p. Tucker, 1923: 387, pl. 10, f. 85 (Df).

mf quadripunctatus (Linnaeus, 1758) *....................Europe, Russia [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027891]
Aranea quadripunctata Linnaeus, 1758: 622 (D).
Aranea crassipes Martini & Goeze, in Lister, 1778: 291 (D).
Drassus sericeus Sundevall, 1831: 29, 1832: 136 (Dmf).
Filistata sericea Wider, 1834: 199, pl. 14, f. 3 (f).
Drassus sericeus C. L. Koch, 1839a: 37, f. 457-458 (mf).
Drassus sericeus Blackwall, 1861a: 111, pl. 6, f. 67 (f, in part).
Drassus rubrens L. Koch, 1866: 79, pl. 4, f. 55 (f, misidentified).
Drassus medius L. Koch, 1866: 82, pl. 4, f. 56 (Df).
Drassus medius Ohlert, 1867: 93 (Dm).
Drassus q. Thorell, 1871a: 176.
Drassus q. Menge, 1875: 376, pl. 65, f. 214 (mf).
Drassus ruber Simon, 1878a: 157 (D).
S. q. Simon, 1893a: 371, f. 326.
Drassus q. Chyzer & Kulczyn'ski, 1897: 213, pl. 8, f. 41, 49 (mf).
Drassus q. Bösenberg, 1902: 293, pl. 27, f. 429 (mf).
Drassodes q. Lessert, 1910b: 54, f. 45, 47 (mf).
S. q. Simon, 1914a: 148, 150, 212, f. 267-268, 274 (mf).
S. q. Reimoser, 1937a: 22, f. 52-53 (mf).
S. q. Tullgren, 1946: 108, f. 32A, pl. 18, f. 225-227 (mf).
Herpyllus q. Braendegaard, 1966: 107, f. 92-93 (mf).
S. q. Miller, 1971: 94, pl. VI, f. 22-23 (mf).
S. q. Platnick & Shadab, 1977b: 41, f. 119-122 (mf).
S. q. Grimm, 1985: 175, f. 203-205, 208-209 (mf).
S. q. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 438, f. 1155 (mf).
S. q. Roberts, 1995: 109, f. (mf).
S. q. Wunderlich, 1995E: 745, f. 3-4, 9-11 (mf).
S. q. Roberts, 1998: 113, f. (mf).
S. q. Almquist, 2006: 420, f. 361a-e (mf).
S. q. Murphy, 2007: 50, f. 374-375 (mf).
S. q. De Koninck, 2010: 50, f. 1-2 (mf).

f rajasthanus Tikader, 1966....................India [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027892]
S. r. Tikader, 1966e: 440, f. 2a-c (Df).
S. r. Tikader, 1982b: 377, f. 192-194 (f).

m rebellatus (Simon, 1880)....................China [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027893]
Drassus r. Simon, 1880b: 119, pl. 3, f. 18-19 (Dm).
S. r. Simon, 1893a: 371.

m regularis Tullgren, 1910....................East Africa [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027894]
S. r. Tullgren, 1910: 106, pl. 1, f. 18 (Dm).

mf relegatus Purcell, 1907....................South Africa [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027895]
S. r. Purcell, 1907: 312, pl. 13, f. 18 (Dm).
S. r. Purcell, 1908: 235 (Df).

f retusus (Simon, 1878)....................France [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027896]
Drassus r. Simon, 1878a: 151 (Df).
S. r. Simon, 1914a: 149, 212, f. 273 (f).

f rufescens (Kroneberg, 1875)....................Central Asia [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027897]
Drassus r. Kroneberg, 1875: 20, pl. 1, f. 7 (Df).
S. r. Simon, 1893a: 371.

m schenkeli Caporiacco, 1949....................Kenya [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027898]
S. s. Caporiacco, 1949a: 428, f. 65 (Dm).

mf scutulatus (L. Koch, 1866)....................Europe to Central Asia, Algeria [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027899]
Drassus tibialis Hahn, 1833b: 1, pl. 25, f. B (f, nomen nudum).
Drassus s. L. Koch, 1866: 93, pl. 4, f. 61-62 (Dmf).
Drassus fulvus Thorell, 1875a: 96 (Df).
Drassus fulvus Thorell, 1875c: 89 (Df).
Drassus s. Hansen, 1882: 57, pl. 4, f. 4 (mf).
Drassus s. Chyzer & Kulczyn'ski, 1897: 213, pl. 8, f. 42, 48 (mf).
Drassus s. Bösenberg, 1902: 293, pl. 27, f. 428 (mf).
Drassodes s. Lessert, 1910b: 55, f. 46, 48 (mf).
S. s. Simon, 1914a: 147, 149, 211, f. 262-263 (mf).
Drassus s. Spassky, 1925: 35, f. 5 (f).
S. s. Reimoser, 1937a: 21, f. 49-50 (mf).
S. s. Tullgren, 1946: 109, f. 32B, pl. 18, f. 228-230 (mf).
Herpyllus s. Braendegaard, 1966: 103, f. 88-89 (mf).
S. s. Miller, 1971: 94, pl. VI, f. 18-19 (mf).
Herpyllus (S.) s. Dresco & Canard, 1976: 24, f. 1-2 (f).
S. s. Grimm, 1985: 179, f. 201, 210-212 (mf).
S. s. Harvey, 1990: 3, f. 1 (f).
S. s. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 438, f. 1156 (mf).
S. s. Noordam, 1992: 1, 2, 8 (mf).
S. s. Roberts, 1993: 6, f. 1b (mf).
S. s. Roberts, 1995: 109, f. (mf).
S. s. Wunderlich, 1995E: 745, f. 5, 12 (mf).
S. s. Roberts, 1998: 113, f. (mf).
S. s. Chatzaki, Thaler & Mylonas, 2002b: 619, f. 46-47 (f).
S. s. Almquist, 2006: 420, f. 362a-e (mf).

f semitectus (Simon, 1886)....................Senegal [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027900]
Drassus s. Simon, 1886g: 381 (Df).
S. s. Simon, 1893a: 371.

mf simlaensis Tikader, 1982....................India, China [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027901]
S. s. Tikader, 1982b: 382, f. 203-207 (Df).
S. s. Yin et al., 2012: 1200, f. 640a-g (f, Dm).

m strandi Caporiacco, 1940....................Ethiopia [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027902]
S. s. Caporiacco, 1940c: 832, f. 34 (Dm).

f tubicola Schmidt, 1990....................Canary Is. [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027904]
S. t. Schmidt, 1990b: 16, f. 1 (Df).

f typhlus Schmidt & Piepho, 1994....................Cape Verde Is. [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027905]
S. t. Schmidt & Piepho, in Schmidt, Geisthardt & Piepho, 1994: 100 (Df).

mf validus (Lucas, 1846)....................Southern Europe, Morocco, Algeria [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027906]
Drassus v. Lucas, 1846: 213, pl. 12, f. 10 (Df).
Macaria valida Simon, 1864: 113.
Drassus viator L. Koch, 1866: 84, pl. 4, f. 57 (Df).
Drassus brevipes Thorell, 1875c: 93 (Df).
S. v. Simon, 1914a: 147, 149, 211, f. 264-265, 273 (f, Dm).

mf westringi Simon, 1914....................France [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:027909]
S. w. Simon, 1914a: 146, 211, f. 259-260 (Dmf).

mf xizang Zhang, Song & Zhu, 2003....................China [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:039007]
S. x. Zhang, Song & Zhu, 2003: 70, f. 1A-I (Dmf).
S. simaoensis Zhang, Yin & Bao, 2003: 637, f. 1-6 (Df).
S. x. Song, Zhu & Zhang, 2004: 214, f. 127A-I (mf, S).