The World Spider Catalog, V15 by N. I. Platnick (c) 2000 - 2014 AMNH

Family: ARANEIDAE

Gen. Singa C. L. Koch, 1836 [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidergen:01559]

Transferred to other genera:
S. abbreviata Keyserling, 1879 -- see Bertrana.
S. aenea Kroneberg, 1875 -- see Hypsosinga.
S. affinis O. P.-Cambridge, 1876 -- see Hypsosinga.
S. albovittata Westring, 1851 -- see Hypsosinga.
S. atra Kulczyn'ski, 1885 -- see Hypsosinga.
S. attica Simon, 1884 -- see Hypsosinga.
S. bengryi Archer, 1958 -- see Metepeira.
S. calix (Walckenaer, 1841) -- see Metazygia.
S. crewi Banks, 1903 -- see Metazygia.
S. cubana Banks, 1909 -- see Hypsosinga.
S. dotana Banks, 1914 -- see Exalbidion under Theridiidae.
S. duodecimguttata Keyserling, 1879 -- see Spilasma.
S. erythrothorax Taczanowski, 1873 -- see Alpaida.
S. essequibensis (Hingston, 1932) -- see Eustala.
S. flava O. P.-Cambridge, 1894 -- see Araneus.
S. floridana Banks, 1896 -- see Araneus.
S. gracilenta (Roewer, 1942) -- see Argiope.
S. groenlandica (Simon, 1889) -- see Hypsosinga.
S. hentzi Banks, 1907 -- see Hypsosinga.
S. heri (Hahn, 1831) -- see Hypsosinga.
S. leucogramma (White, 1841) -- see Alpaida.
S. linyphiformis (Bösenberg & Strand, 1906) -- see Hypsosinga.
S. longicauda Taczanowski, 1878 -- see Cyclosa.
S. marmorata Taczanowski, 1873 -- see Alpaida.
S. maura (Hentz, 1847) -- see Metazygia.
S. melania Chamberlin & Ivie, 1947 -- see Hypsosinga.
S. modesta Banks, 1896 -- see Hypsosinga.
S. mollybyrnae McCook, 1894 -- see Metazygia.
S. nigripes Keyserling, 1884 -- see Hypsosinga.
S. nigrofasciata L. Koch, 1881 -- see Hypsosinga.
S. niveosigillata Mello-Leitão, 1941 -- see Alpaida.
S. orotes Archer, 1951 -- see Hypsosinga.
S. phragmiteti Nemenz, 1956 -- see Larinia.
S. pratensis Emerton, 1884 -- see Araneus.
S. pygmaea (Sundevall, 1831) -- see Hypsosinga.
S. rubens (Hentz, 1847) -- see Hypsosinga.
S. sanguinea C. L. Koch, 1844 -- see Hypsosinga.
S. scabristernis Kulczyn'ski, 1887 -- see Hypsosinga.
S. singaeformis (Scheffer, 1904) -- see Hypsosinga.
S. theridiformis (Bösenberg & Strand, 1906) -- see Hypsosinga.
S. trapezoides (Karsch, 1879) -- see Eriophora.
S. truncata Banks, 1901 -- see Hypsosinga.
S. vanbruyseli Becker, 1879 -- see Cyclosa.
S. variabilis Emerton, 1884 -- see Hypsosinga.

In synonymy:
S. campestris Emerton, 1915 = S. keyserlingi McCook, 1894 (Levi, 1972a: 232).
S. decora (Simon, 1891) = S. neta (O. P.-Cambridge, 1872) (Levy, 1984: 124).
S. hamata (Olivier, 1789) = S. hamata (Clerck, 1757) (Clerckian names validated by ICZN Direction 104).
S. pollocki (Denis, 1956, T from Lithyphantes=Steatoda) = S. neta (O. P.-Cambridge, 1872) (Levy, 1984: 124).
S. septemguttata (Simon, 1873, T from Steatoda) = S. neta (O. P.-Cambridge, 1872) (Levy, 1984: 124).

Nomina dubia:
S. moesta Banks, 1898b: 256, pl. 15, f. 3 (f, Mexico, renamed as Araneus metuens by Petrunkevitch, 1911: 302) -- Levi, 1972a: 231.
S. tremens Holmberg, 1876: 16 (f, Argentina) -- Levi, 1972a: 231.
S. vittata Taczanowski, 1873: 128 (f, French Guiana, listed in Araneus by Petrunkevitch, 1911: 324) -- Levi, 1972a: 231.

f albobivittata Caporiacco, 1947....................Tanzania [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:017035]
S. a. Caporiacco, 1947d: 164, f. 24 (Df).

f albodorsata Kauri, 1950....................South Africa [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:017036]
S. a. Kauri, 1950: 11, f. 8a-c (Df).

mf alpigena Yin, Wang & Li, 1983....................China [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:017037]
S. a. Yin, Wang & Li, 1983: 374, f. 1-7, 9 (Dmf).
S. a. Song, 1987: 175, f. 135 (mf).
S. a. Yin et al., 1997d: 390, f. 282a-h (mf).
S. a. Song, Chen & Zhu, 1997: 1717, f. 20a-c (f).
S. a. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 309, f. 183E-F, K-L, 185J (mf).
S. a. Zhu et al., 2005: 517, f. 6A-F (mf).
S. a. Yin et al., 2012: 759, f. 379a-h (mf).

mf alpigenoides Song & Zhu, 1992....................China [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:017038]
S. a. Song & Zhu, 1992c: 171, f. 8A-B (Dm).
S. a. Song & Li, 1997: 415, f. 20A-B (m).
S. a. Yin et al., 1997d: 391, f. 283a-d (m).
S. a. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 309, f. 183M-N (m).
S. a. Zhu et al., 2005: 518, f. 7A-E (m, Df).

f ammophila Levy, 2007....................Israel [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:041054]
S. a. Levy, 2007: 27, f. 67-69 (Df).

mf aussereri Thorell, 1873....................Europe [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:017039]
S. a. Thorell, 1873: 456 (D).
S. rufula Simon, 1874a: 131, pl. 2, f. 4 (Df; see also Simon, 1873a: 173, pl. 3, f. 5).
S. sanguinea Chyzer & Kulczyn'ski, 1891: 135, pl. 5, f. 29 (mf, misidentified).
S. rufula Becker, 1896: 48, pl. 10, f. 3 (f, Dm).
Araneus rufulus Simon, 1929: 703, 705, 767, f. 1099-1101 (mf).
Hypsosinga a. Thaler & Knoflach, 2003: 638 (considered a nomen dubium, without discussion of most of the above treatments).

f bifasciata Schenkel, 1936....................China [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:017040]
S. b. Schenkel, 1936b: 118, f. 41 (Df).

f chota Tikader, 1970....................India [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:017041]
S. c. Tikader, 1970: 35, f. 22a-b (Df).
S. c. Tikader & Biswas, 1981: 43, f. 70-71 (f).

jj concinna Karsch, 1884....................São Tomé [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:017042]
S. c. Karsch, 1884a: 66 (Djj).

mf cruciformis Yin, Peng & Wang, 1994....................China [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:017043]
S. c. Yin, Peng & Wang, 1994: 109, f. 27-31 (Dmf).
S. c. Yin et al., 1997d: 392, f. 284a-e (mf).
S. c. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 309, f. 183G-H, O-P, 185K (mf).

f cyanea (Worley, 1928)....................USA [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:017044]
Lithyphantes cyaneus Worley, 1928: 621, f. 5-6 (Df).
S. c. Levi, 1957b: 376 (Tf from Lithyphantes=Steatoda).

mf eugeni Levi, 1972....................USA [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:017045]
S. rubella Keyserling, 1893: 284, pl. 14, f. 209 (f, misidentified).
S. e. Levi, 1972a: 236, f. 25-34 (Dmf).
S. e. Levi, 2002: 549, f. 201-202 (m).
S. e. Dondale et al., 2003: 277, f. 641-648 (mf).

f haddooensis Tikader, 1977....................Andaman Is. [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:017046]
S. h. Tikader, 1977a: 183, f. 13A-B (Df).

mf hamata (Clerck, 1757) *....................Palearctic [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:017047]
Araneus hamatus Clerck, 1757: 51, pl. 3, f. 4 (Df).
Aranea h. Olivier, 1789: 210.
Aranea tubulosa Walckenaer, 1802: 200 (D).
Epeira tubulosa Walckenaer, 1805: 62.
S. h. C. L. Koch, 1836a: 42, f. 197-198 (f, Dm).
Epeira tubulosa Walckenaer, 1841: 86 (Dmf).
S. serrulata C. L. Koch, 1844: 153 (D).
Zilla h. Thorell, 1856: 107.
Epeira tubulosa Blackwall, 1864a: 364, pl. 28, f. 262 (mf).
S. h. Menge, 1866: 82, pl. 13, f. 22 (mf).
S. h. Hansen, 1882: 22, pl. 1, f. 38 (mf).
S. h. Chyzer & Kulczyn'ski, 1891: 134, pl. 5, f. 24 (mf).
S. h. Becker, 1896: 43, pl. 9, f. 4 (mf).
S. h. Bösenberg, 1901: 49, pl. 3, f. 41 (mf).
Araneus hamatus Lessert, 1910b: 333.
Aranea h. Reimoser, 1932: 12, f. 3 (mf).
Araneus hamatus Simon, 1929: 701, 765, f. 1093 (mf).
S. h. Wiehle, 1931: 42, f. 54-57 (mf).
S. h. Drensky, 1943: 231, f. 10 (mf).
S. h. Locket & Millidge, 1953: 157, f. 102B, 103C, 105C (mf).
S. h. Yaginuma, 1960: 59, f. 57 (f).
S. h. Zamaraev, 1964: 353, f. 21, 23-25 (mf).
S. h. Yaginuma, 1965b: 363, f. 3.1 (f).
S. h. Azheganova, 1968: 90, f. 179-180, 194 (mf).
S. h. Miller, 1971: 206, pl. XXXVIII, f. 3-5 (mf).
S. h. Yaginuma, 1971: 59, f. 57 (f).
S. h. Tyschchenko, 1971: 193, f. 559, 562 (mf).
S. h. Loksa, 1972: 99, f. 90, 91C-E (mf).
S. h. Levi, 1972a: 232, f. 1-8 (mf).
S. h. Bakhvalov, 1974: 108, f. 18-19, 22-23 (mf).
S. h. Palmgren, 1974a: 8, f. 3a-c (mf).
S. h. Yin, 1978: 7, f. 17A-C (f).
S. h. Paik & Namkung, 1979: 47, f. 30.1-2 (mf).
S. h. Song, 1980: 109, f. 54a-c (f).
S. h. Yin, Wang & Li, 1983: 376, f. 8, 10 (m).
S. h. Levy, 1984: 122, f. 9-10 (f).
S. h. Hu, 1984: 129, f. 130.1-3 (mf).
S. h. Roberts, 1985: 218, f. 99a (mf).
S. h. Guo, 1985: 71, f. 2-24.1-3 (mf).
S. h. Zhu et al., 1985: 86, f. 75a-e (mf).
S. h. Yaginuma, 1986a: 107, f. 57.1 (f).
S. h. Song, 1987: 176, f. 136 (mf).
S. h. Zhang, 1987: 88, f. 72.1-5 (mf).
S. h. Chikuni, 1989b: 76, f. 41 (mf).
S. h. Hu & Wu, 1989: 107, f. 82.1-3 (mf).
S. h. Feng, 1990: 98, f. 73.1-3 (mf).
S. h. Chen & Gao, 1990: 71, f. 89a-b (mf).
S. h. Chen & Zhang, 1991: 108, f. 101.1-3 (mf).
S. h. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 90, f. 201 (mf).
S. h. Zhao, 1993: 259, f. 121a-c (mf).
S. h. Roberts, 1995: 332, f. (mf).
S. h. Mcheidze, 1997: 259, f. 577-579 (mf).
S. h. Yin et al., 1997d: 393, f. 285a-f (mf).
S. h. Roberts, 1998: 345, f. (mf).
S. h. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 309, f. 183I-J, 184A-B (mf).
S. h. Hu, 2001: 473, f. 313.1-3 (mf).
S. h. Song, Zhu & Chen, 2001: 224, f. 137A-D (mf).
S. h. Namkung, 2002: 284, f. 19.45a-b (mf).
S. h. Kim & Kim, 2002: 224, f. 68, 153-154, 287 (mf).
S. h. Namkung, 2003: 286, f. 19.45a-b (mf).
S. h. Almquist, 2005: 176, f. 181a-h (mf).
S. h. Tanikawa, 2007c: 54, f. 80, 479-480 (mf).
S. h. Crespo, 2008: 403, f. 1A-B (mf).
S. h. Tanikawa, 2009: 431, f. 63-64 (mf).
S. h. Zhu & Zhang, 2011: 247, f. 178A-D (mf).
S. h. Yin et al., 2012: 760, f. 380a-f (mf).

mf hamata melanocephala C. L. Koch, 1836....................Europe [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:017048]
S. m. C. L. Koch, 1836a: 44, f. 199 (Dm).
Epeira m. Westring, 1851: 36.
S. m. Westring, 1861: 61 (Df).
Araneus h. melanocephalus Simon, 1929: 702, 765.

f hilira Barrion & Litsinger, 1995....................Philippines [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:017049]
S. h. Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 610, f. 382a-g (Df).

j kansuensis Schenkel, 1936....................China [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:017050]
S. k. Schenkel, 1936b: 116 (Dj).

mf keyserlingi McCook, 1894....................USA, Canada [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:017051]
S. k. McCook, 1894: 230, pl. 19, f. 2 (Df).
S. campestris Emerton, 1915b: 153, pl. 3, f. 3 (Dm).
S. k. Levi, 1972a: 232, f. 9-24 (removed f from S of S. pratensis per Roewer, Sm).
S. k. Levi, 2002: 541, f. 100-101 (f).
S. k. Paquin & Dupérré, 2003: 49, f. 344-346 (mf).
S. k. Dondale et al., 2003: 275, f. 632-640 (mf).

f lawrencei (Lessert, 1930)....................Congo [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:017052]
Araneus (S.) l. Lessert, 1930: 658, f. 30 (Df).

f leucoplagiata (Simon, 1899)....................Sumatra [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:017053]
Araneus (S.) leucoplagiatus Simon, 1899a: 90 (Df).

mf lucina (Audouin, 1826)....................Mediterranean to Central Asia [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:017054]
Epeira l. Audouin, 1826: 345, pl. 3, f. 4 (Df).
S. l. Chyzer & Kulczyn'ski, 1891: 134, pl. 5, f. 23 (f).
Araneus l. Simon, 1929: 701, 766, f. 1095, 1097 (f, Dm).
S. l. Drensky, 1943: 231, f. 12 (f).
S. l. Loksa, 1972: 98, f. 91A-B (f).
S. l. Levy, 1984: 122, f. 1-8 (f).
S. l. Levy, 1991: 231, f. 13-17 (m).

mf lucina eburnea (Simon, 1929)....................Algeria, Tunisia [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:017055]
Araneus l. e. Simon, 1929: 701 (Dmf).

f myrrhea (Simon, 1895)....................India [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:017056]
Araneus myrrheus Simon, 1895a: 824 (Df).
S. m. Roewer, 1942a: 876.

mf neta (O. P.-Cambridge, 1872)....................Mediterranean [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:017057]
Epeira n. O. P.-Cambridge, 1872a: 298 (Dmf).
Lithyphantes septem-guttatus Simon, 1873a: 84 (Df).
Cercidia decora Simon, 1891b: 198 (Df).
Araneus decorus Simon, 1929: 701, 705, 766 (Dm).
Lithyphantes pollocki Denis, 1956b: 277, f. 2-4 (Df).
Steatoda pollocki Brignoli, 1983c: 412.
S. n. Levy, 1984: 124, f. 26-41 (Tmf from Araneus, S).
Hypsosinga decora Morano & Ferrández, 1986: 174, f. 5-8 (f).

mf nitidula C. L. Koch, 1844....................Palearctic [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:017058]
Epeira tubulosa Hahn, 1831a: 10, f. 6 (mf, misidentified).
S. n. C. L. Koch, 1844: 149, f. 946-947 (mf).
S. n. Chyzer & Kulczyn'ski, 1891: 134, pl. 5, f. 25 (mf).
S. n. Bösenberg, 1901: 50, pl. 3, f. 42 (mf).
Araneus nitidulus Lessert, 1910b: 334.
Araneus nitidulus Fedotov, 1912a: 88, f. 33 (f).
Araneus nitidulus Simon, 1929: 702, 765, f. 1094, 1098 (mf).
S. n. Wiehle, 1931: 44, f. 58-61 (mf).
S. n. Drensky, 1943: 231, f. 11 (mf).
S. n. Tullgren, 1952: 162, f. 7a-c (mf).
S. n. Beer, 1964: 529, f. 11 (f).
S. n. Zamaraev, 1964: 353, f. 26-27 (f).
S. n. Azheganova, 1968: 90, f. 181, 195 (mf).
S. n. Tyschchenko, 1971: 193, f. 560, 563 (mf).
S. n. Loksa, 1972: 99, f. 91F-H (mf).
S. n. Bakhvalov, 1974: 108, f. 20-21, 25 (mf).
S. n. Palmgren, 1974a: 10, f. 3d-g (mf).
S. n. Levy, 1984: 122, f. 11-12 (f).
S. n. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 90, f. 202 (mf).
S. n. Thaler, 1991b: 54, f. 36-41 (mf).
S. n. Roberts, 1995: 333, f. (mf).
S. n. Mcheidze, 1997: 259, f. 575-576 (mf).
S. n. Roberts, 1998: 345, f. (mf).
S. n. Aakra, 2005: 34, f. 11 (m).
S. n. Almquist, 2005: 177, f. 182a-e (mf).

f perpolita (Thorell, 1892)....................Singapore [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:017059]
Epeira p. Thorell, 1892a: 237 (Df).
Epeira p. Workman, 1896: 46, pl. 46 (f).
S. p. Roewer, 1942a: 876.

mf semiatra L. Koch, 1867....................Mediterranean, Ukraine [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:017062]
S. s. L. Koch, 1867c: 860 (Dm).
S. s. Simon, 1929: 700, 766, f. 1096 (f, Dm).
S. s. Drensky, 1943: 231, f. 12 (f).
S. s. Levy, 1984: 124, f. 13-25 (mf).
S. s. Izmailova, 1989: 64, f. 45 (f).
S. s. Marusik, 2009h: 14, f. 4, 10 (f).

f simoniana Costa, 1885....................Sardinia [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:017063]
S. s. Costa, 1885: 255 (Df).

f theodori (Thorell, 1894)....................Java [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:017064]
Epeira (S.) t. Thorell, 1894a: 46 (Df).