The World Spider Catalog, V15 by N. I. Platnick (c) 2000 - 2014 AMNH

Family: TITANOECIDAE

Gen. Titanoeca Thorell, 1870 [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidergen:02077]

Transferred to other genera:
T. albofasciata Strand, 1907 -- see Nurscia.
T. albomaculata (Lucas, 1846) -- see Nurscia.
T. birmanica Thorell, 1895 -- see Pandava.
T. decorata Yin & Bao, 2001 -- see Taira under Amaurobiidae.
T. escheri Reimoser, 1934 -- see Anuvinda.
T. fulmeki Reimoser, 1927 -- see Pandava.
T. nipponica Yaginuma, 1959 -- see Nurscia.
T. obscura Keyserling, 1878 -- see Goeldia.
T. patellaris (Simon, 1892) -- see Goeldia.
T. sequerai Simon, 1892 -- see Nurscia.
T. tibetana Hu & Li, 1987 -- see Tamgrinia under Amaurobiidae.
T. tizamina Chamberlin & Ivie, 1938 -- see Goeldia.
T. yadongensis Hu & Li, 1987 -- see Tamgrinia under Amaurobiidae.

In synonymy:
T. anopla Chamberlin, 1947 = T. americana Emerton, 1888 (Leech, 1972: 100).
T. burjatica Danilov, 1994 = T. asimilis Song & Zhu, 1985 (Marusik, Logunov & Koponen, 2000: 119).
T. hingstoni (Hu & Li, 1987, T from Protadia=Argenna) = T. asimilis Song & Zhu, 1985 (Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 396).
T. intermedia Caporiacco, 1934 = T. flavicoma L. Koch, 1872 (Lehtinen, 1967: 270, but see Marusik, Ballarin & Omelko, 2012a: 63).
T. kochi (Ausserer, 1867) = T. quadriguttata (Hahn, 1833) (Thaler, 1988: 118, after Thorell, 1870).
T. ruficeps (O. P.-Cambridge, 1872, T from Amaurobius) = T. flavicoma L. Koch, 1872 (Lehtinen, 1967: 270).
T. sibirica L. Koch, 1879 = T. flavicoma L. Koch, 1872 (Lehtinen, 1967: 270).
T. silvicola Chamberlin & Ivie, 1947 = T. nivalis Simon, 1874 (Marusik, 1995: 126).
T. simplex (O. P.-Cambridge, 1872, T from Amaurobius) = T. flavicoma L. Koch, 1872 (Lehtinen, 1967: 270).
T. transbaicalica Danilov, 1994 = T. liaoningensis Zhu, Gao & Guan, 1993 (Danilov, 2008: 49).
T. zyuzini Marusik, 1995 = T. liaoningensis Zhu, Gao & Guan, 1993 (Danilov, 2008: 49).

mf altaica Song & Zhou, 1994....................China [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:023188]
T. a. Song & Zhou, in Zhou, Song & Song, 1994: 23, f. 1-4 (Dmf).
T. a. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 396, f. 230R-S, V-W (mf).

mf americana Emerton, 1888....................North America [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:023189]
T. a. Emerton, 1888: 453, pl. 10, f. 4 (Dmf).
Amaurobius americanus Crosby & Bishop, 1928b: 1034.
Amaurobius americanus Emerton, 1902: 215, f. 493 (mf).
T. a. anopla Chamberlin, 1947: 21, pl. 4, f. 35 (Df).
T. a. Kaston, 1948: 518, f. 1970, 1997-2003 (mf).
T. flavicoma Lehtinen, 1967: 270 (S, rejected).
T. anopla Lehtinen, 1967: 271 (elevated from subspecies of T. americana).
T. a. Leech, 1972: 100, f. 181-182, 377, 380 (removed mf from S, S).
T. a. Paquin & Dupérré, 2003: 237, f. 2682-2685 (mf).
T. a. Griswold et al., 2005: 42, f. 174B-C, E, 188A-B (m).

mf asimilis Song & Zhu, 1985....................Russia, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, China [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:023190]
T. a. Song & Zhu, 1985: 73, f. 4-7 (Dmf).
T. a. Zhu et al., 1985: 53, f. 43a-f (mf).
T. a. Song, 1987: 63, f. 33 (mf).
Protadia hingstoni Hu & Li, 1987a: 320, f. 4.1-3, 5.1-2 (Dmf).
T. burjatica Danilov, 1994: 208, f. 43-46 (Dmf).
T. a. Marusik, 1995: 125, f. 2, 7-8, 16 (mf).
T. a. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 396, f. 231A-D (mf, S).
T. a. Marusik, Logunov & Koponen, 2000: 119 (S).
T. a. Hu, 2001: 119, f. 35.1-4 (mf).

mf brunnea Emerton, 1888....................USA, Canada [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:023191]
T. b. Emerton, 1888: 453, pl. 10, f. 5 (Df).
T. b. Leech, 1972: 102, f. 183-184, 378, 382 (f, Dm).

mf caucasica Dunin, 1985....................Azerbaijan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:023192]
T. c. Dunin, 1985b: 932, f. 1-8 (Dmf).

mf eca Marusik, 1995....................Kazakhstan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:023193]
T. e. Marusik, in Eskov & Marusik, 1995: 68, f. 83-90 (Dmf).
T. e. Marusik & Kovblyuk, 2011: 257, f. 38.5, 9-10 (mf).

mf flavicoma L. Koch, 1872....................Palearctic [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:023194]
T. f. L. Koch, 1872d: 163 (Dmf).
Amaurobius simplex O. P.-Cambridge, 1872a: 262 (Dm).
Amaurobius ruficeps O. P.-Cambridge, 1872a: 264 (Dm).
T. sibirica L. Koch, 1879c: 84, pl. 3, f. 4 (Df).
T. f. Simon, 1914a: 42, 60, f. 83 (mf).
T. intermedia Caporiacco, 1934a: 119, pl. 1, f. 5 (Dmf).
T. f. Hubert, 1966: 239, f. 4 (f).
T. f. Lehtinen, 1967: 270, f. 427, 432, 435 (m, S).
T. sibirica Holm, 1973: 107, f. 113-117 (mf).
T. f. Palmgren, 1977a: 24, f. 5.25-29 (mf).
T. f. Gao, Guan & Zhu, 1993: 75, f. 6-10 (mf).
T. sibirica Danilov, 1994: 206, f. 36-38 (mf).
T. sibirica Esyunin & Efimik, 1995: 81, f. 9-10 (f).
T. sibirica Marusik, 1995: 126, f. 4, 11-12, 18-20 (mf).
T. f. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 396, f. 231E-H, L (mf).
T. sibirica Marusik & Kovblyuk, 2011: 257, f. 38.1, 3-4, 7-8 (m).

m guayaquilensis Schmidt, 1971....................Ecuador [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:023195]
T. g. Schmidt, 1971: 418, f. 23 (Dm).

m gyirongensis Hu, 2001....................China [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:037842]
T. g. Hu, 2001: 120, f. 35.1-3 (Dm).

mf hispanica Wunderlich, 1995....................Spain, France [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:023196]
T. h. Wunderlich, 1995C: 733, f. 1-4, 15-16 (Dmf).

mf incerta (Nosek, 1905)....................Bulgaria, Turkey [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:023197]
Amaurobius i. Nosek, 1905b: 120, f. 1 (Df).
T. i. Drensky, 1940: 192, f. 27b (Dm).

mf lehtineni Fet, 1986....................Central Asia [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:023198]
T. l. Fet, 1986: 65, f. 1-3 (Dmf).
T. l. Omelko, 2011a: 82, f. 1-10 (mf).

m lianyuanensis Xu, Yin & Bao, 2002....................China [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:037843]
T. l. Xu, Yin & Bao, 2002a: 235, f. 1-6 (Dm).
T. l. Yin et al., 2012: 1041, f. 541a-f (m).

mf liaoningensis Zhu, Gao & Guan, 1993....................Russia, Mongolia, China [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:023199]
T. l. Zhu, Gao & Guan, in Gao, Guan & Zhu, 1993: 74, f. 1-5 (Dmf).
T. transbaicalica Danilov, 1994: 206, f. 39-42 (Dmf) [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:023210].
T. zyuzini Marusik, 1995: 124, f. 1, 5-6, 13-15 (Dmf) [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:023216].
T. l. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 396, f. 231I-K, M-N (mf).
T. l. Danilov, 2008: 49 (S).

f mae Song, Zhang & Zhu, 2002....................China [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:037844]
T. m. Song, Zhang & Zhu, 2002: 146, f. 2A-C (Df).

f minuta Marusik, 1995....................Kazakhstan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:023200]
T. m. Marusik, in Eskov & Marusik, 1995: 69, f. 91-93 (Df).

mf monticola (Simon, 1870)....................Portugal, Spain, France [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:023201]
Dictyna m. Simon, 1870b: 304 (Dm).
Dictyna m. Simon, 1873a: 169, pl. 1, f. 27 (m).
T. m. Simon, 1874a: 214, pl. 3, f. 10 (m, Df).
Amaurobius m. Simon, 1892a: 233, f. 187 (m).
T. m. Simon, 1914a: 42, 60, f. 85 (m).
T. m. Hubert, 1966: 239, f. 8 (f).
T. m. Lehtinen, 1967: 459, f. 434 (f).
T. m. Millidge, 1993c: 154, f. 58 (f).

mf nigrella (Chamberlin, 1919)....................North America [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:023202]
Amaurobius nigrellus Chamberlin, 1919b: 2 (Df).
T. flavicoma Lehtinen, 1967: 270 (S, rejected).
T. n. Leech, 1972: 96, f. 177-178, 375, 379 (mf, removed from S).

mf nivalis Simon, 1874....................Holarctic [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:023203]
T. n. Simon, 1874a: 210 (Dmf).
Ciniflo n. Lessert, 1910b: 23, f. 25, 27, 29 (mf).
T. n. Simon, 1914a: 43, 61, f. 87 (m).
T. silvicola Chamberlin & Ivie, 1947b: 15, f. 7-8 (Dmf).
T. silvicola Chamberlin, 1947: 22, pl. 4, f. 36 (m).
T. n. Hubert, 1966: 241, f. 5 (f).
T. flavicoma Lehtinen, 1967: 270 (S, rejected).
T. silvicola Leech, 1972: 98, f. 179-180, 376, 381 (removed mf from S of T. nigrella).
T. n. Thaler, 1981c: 127, f. 72 (m).
T. n. Wunderlich, 1993b: 350, f. 10 (m).
T. n. Marusik, 1995: 126, f. 3, 9-10, 17 (mf, S).
T. n. Mcheidze, 1997: 52, f. 34 (f).
T. n. Almquist, 2006: 329, f. 288a-f (mf).

mf palpator Hu & Li, 1987....................China [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:023204]
T. p. Hu & Li, 1987b: 248, f. 2.1-4 (Dmf).
T. p. Hu, 2001: 123, f. 38.1-4 (mf).

mf praefica (Simon, 1870)....................Spain, France, Algeria, Russia [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:023205]
Dictyna praefixa Simon, 1870b: 303 (Dm, lapsus).
Dictyna p. Simon, 1873a: 169, pl. 1, f. 26 (m).
T. p. Simon, 1874a: 217.
Amaurobius praeficus Simon, 1911b: 276.
T. p. Simon, 1914a: 42, 60, f. 82 (m).
T. p. Hubert, 1966: 242, f. 9 (Df).
T. p. Esyunin & Efimik, 1995: 81, f. 7-8 (f).

mf psammophila Wunderlich, 1993....................Sweden, Central Europe [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:023206]
T. p. Wunderlich, 1993b: 347, f. 1-6 (Dmf).
T. p. Roberts, 1995: 82, f. (mf).
T. p. Kupryjanowicz, 1997b: 57, f. 1-4 (mf).
T. p. Roberts, 1998: 84, f. (mf).
T. p. Almquist, 2006: 330, f. 289a-e (mf).

mf quadriguttata (Hahn, 1833) *....................Palearctic [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:023207]
Aranea obscura Walckenaer, 1802: 209 (Dmf; preoccupied by Olivier, 1789 and Fabricius, 1793).
Theridion obscurum Walckenaer, 1805: 76.
Theridion obscurum Hahn, 1833a: 83, f. 62 (mf).
Theridion 4-guttatum Hahn, 1833a: 89, f. 63-64 (Dmf).
Theridion 4-guttatum Hahn, 1836: 1, pl. 29, f. a-b (mf).
Theridion notatum Walckenaer, 1841: 334 (Dm).
Latrodectus 4-guttatus C. L. Koch, 1850: 23.
Theridion ardesiacum Dufour, 1855: 10, pl. 5, f. 8-14 (Dmf).
Eucharium obscurum Simon, 1864: 168.
Amaurobius kochi Ausserer, 1867: 162, pl. 7, f. 5 (Dm).
T. q. Thorell, 1870b: 124.
T. kochii L. Koch, 1872d: 170.
T. q. Thorell, 1873: 506.
T. q. Chyzer & Kulczyn'ski, 1891: 163, pl. 6, f. 34 (mf).
Amaurobius q. Simon, 1892a: 237.
T. q. Becker, 1896: 227, pl. 14, f. 10 (mf).
T. q. Bösenberg, 1902: 248, pl. 23, f. 357 (mf).
T. tristis Bösenberg, 1902: 249, pl. 23, f. 359 (mf, misidentified).
Ciniflo IV-guttatus Lessert, 1910b: 22, f. 26-29 (mf).
T. obscura Kratochvíl, 1932b: 14, 24, f. 1-2, 3a-b (mf).
T. obscura Drensky, 1940: 192, f. 30 (mf).
T. obscura Wiehle, 1953: 144, f. 297-303 (mf).
T. q. Muller, 1956: 203, f. 11-12 (mf).
T. obscura Schenkel, 1963: 24, f. 6 (f).
T. obscura Hubert, 1966: 241, f. 1 (f).
T. q. Lehtinen, 1967: 459, f. 423-424, 428-429, 436-437 (f).
T. obscura Loksa, 1969: 31, f. 21B, D-F (mf).
T. obscura Miller, 1971: 67, pl. III, f. 19 (m).
T. q. Palmgren, 1977a: 24, f. 5.30-31 (mf).
T. q. Thaler, 1988: 118 (S).
T. obscura Hu & Wu, 1989: 60, f. 42.1-4 (mf).
T. q. Hu & Wu, 1989: 62, f. 43.1-2 (f).
T. obscura Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 386, f. 1001 (mf).
T. obscura Millidge, 1993c: 154, f. 57 (f).
T. q. Wunderlich, 1993b: 350, f. 7-9 (mf).
T. q. Roberts, 1995: 81, f. (mf).
T. q. Roberts, 1998: 84, f. (mf).
T. q. Hu, 2001: 121, f. 37.1-4 (mf).

mf schineri L. Koch, 1872....................Palearctic [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:023208]
T. s. L. Koch, 1872d: 159 (Dmf).
T. s. Chyzer & Kulczyn'ski, 1891: 163, pl. 6, f. 35 (mf).
T. s. Simon, 1914a: 42, 80, f. 84 (mf).
T. s. Spassky, 1925: 27, f. 46 (f).
T. s. Kratochvíl, 1932b: 17, 24, f. 3c, 4-5 (mf).
T. s. Drensky, 1940: 192, f. 29 (mf).
T. s. Hubert, 1966: 242, f. 3 (f).
T. s. Loksa, 1969: 32, f. 21A, C, 22B, D (mf).
T. s. Miller, 1971: 67, pl. III, f. 20 (m).
T. s. Holm, 1973: 107, f. 111-112 (m).
T. s. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 386, f. 1002 (mf).
T. s. Mcheidze, 1997: 51, f. 31-33 (f).

mf sharmai (Bastawade, 2008)....................India [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:042094]
Amaurobius s. Bastawade, 2008: 40, f. 1-12 (Dmf).
T. s. Marusik, Ballarin & Omelko, 2012a: 62 (Tmf from Amaurobius).

mf tristis L. Koch, 1872....................Europe to Central Asia [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:023211]
Latrodectus t. Koch, in Canestrini & Pavesi, 1870: 32, pl. 3, f. 9 (nomen nudum).
T. t. L. Koch, 1872d: 167 (Dmf).
T. t. Chyzer & Kulczyn'ski, 1891: 163, pl. 6, f. 32 (mf).
Ciniflo t. Lessert, 1910b: 24.
T. t. Simon, 1914a: 43, 60, f. 86 (m).
T. t. Kratochvíl, 1932b: 17, 24, f. 3d, 6-7 (mf).
T. t. Drensky, 1940: 192, f. 27b, 28 (mf).
T. t. Wiehle, 1953: 148, f. 304-305 (mf).
T. t. Hubert, 1966: 243, f. 2 (f).
T. t. Lehtinen, 1967: 271 (S).
T. t. Loksa, 1969: 33, f. 20D, 22C (mf).
T. t. Tyschchenko, 1971: 60. f. 87, 89 (mf).
T. t. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 384, f. 999 (mf).
T. t. Wunderlich, 1995C: 734, f. 5-6, 13-14 (mf).

m turkmenia Wunderlich, 1995....................Greece, Iran, Turkmenistan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:023212]
T. t. Wunderlich, 1995C: 735, f. 7-10 (Dm).

mf ukrainica Guryanova, 1992....................Ukraine, Russia [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:023213]
T. u. Guryanova, 1992: 16, f. 3.1-2 (Dm).
T. u. Ponomarev, 2008b: 79, f. 1a (Df).

mf veteranica Herman, 1879....................Eastern Europe to Central Asia [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:023214]
T. v. Herman, 1879: 351, pl. 7, f. 155 (Dmf).
T. v. Chyzer & Kulczyn'ski, 1891: 163, pl. 6, f. 33 (mf).
T. v. Kratochvíl, 1932b: 19, 24, f. 3d, 8-9 (mf).
T. tristis Lehtinen, 1967: 271 (S, rejected).
T. v. Loksa, 1969: 32, f. 20C, 22A, E (mf).
T. v. Tyschchenko, 1971: 60, f. 86, 88 (mf).
T. v. Miller, 1971: 67, pl. III, f. 21 (m).
T. v. Wunderlich, 1995C: 735, f. 11-12, 17 (mf).