The World Spider Catalog, V15 by N. I. Platnick (c) 2000 - 2014 AMNH

Family: ARANEIDAE

Gen. Zygiella F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1902 [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidergen:01582]

N.B.: transferred here from the Tetragnathidae by Scharff & Coddington, 1997: 404 (after Coddington, 1990: 17), there by Levi, 1980a; probably polyphyletic (see comments by Levy, 1987: 247).

Transferred to other genera:
Z. alpina (Giebel, 1867) -- see Theridion under Theridiidae.
Z. aureola (Keyserling, 1884) -- see Chrysometa under Tetragnathidae.
Z. baojingensis Yin, 2002 -- see Guizygiella under Tetragnathidae.
Z. carpenteri Archer, 1951 -- see Parazygiella.
Z. caspica (Simon, 1889) -- see Leviellus.
Z. decolorata (Keyserling, 1893) -- see Mangora.
Z. dispar (Kulczyn'ski, 1885) -- see Parazygiella.
Z. guangxiensis Zhu & Zhang, 1993 -- see Guizygiella under Tetragnathidae.
Z. guttata (Keyserling, 1880) -- see Chrysometa under Tetragnathidae.
Z. guyanensis (Keyserling, 1881) -- see Manogea.
Z. inconveniens (O. P.-Cambridge, 1872) -- see Leviellus.
Z. indica Tikader & Bal, 1980 -- see Guizygiella under Tetragnathidae.
Z. kochi (Thorell, 1870) -- see Leviellus.
Z. melanocephala (Taczanowski, 1873) -- see Mangora.
Z. melanocrania (Thorell, 1887) -- see Guizygiella under Tetragnathidae.
Z. montana (C. L. Koch, 1834) -- see Parazygiella.
Z. nadleri Heimer, 1984 -- see Guizygiella under Tetragnathidae.
Z. nawazi (Dyal, 1935) -- see Araneus.
Z. punctata (Keyserling, 1893) -- see Metazygia.
Z. rogenhoferi (Keyserling, 1878) -- see Metazygia.
Z. salta Yin & Gong, 1996 -- see Guizygiella under Tetragnathidae.
Z. shivui Patel & Reddy, 1990 -- see Guizygiella under Tetragnathidae.
Z. sia (Strand, 1906) -- see Yaginumia.
Z. stroemi (Thorell, 1870) -- see Stroemiellus.
Z. thorelli (Ausserer, 1871) -- see Leviellus.

In synonymy:
Z. biologica (Chamberlin, 1925, T from Pseudometa=Chrysometa) = Z. x-notata (Clerck, 1757) (Levi, 1980a: 16).
Z. bosenbergi (Keyserling, 1878) = Z. x-notata (Clerck, 1757) (Levi, 1974a: 276).
Z. californica (Banks, 1896) = Z. x-notata (Clerck, 1757) (Gertsch, 1964a: 12).
Z. calophylla (Walckenaer, 1802) = Z. x-notata (Clerck, 1757) (Levi, 1974a: 271).
Z. canariensis Schmidt, 1977 = Z. minima Schmidt, 1968 (Wunderlich, 1987a: 135).
Z. gigans (Franganillo, 1913, T from Enoplognatha) = Z. x-notata (Clerck, 1757) (Méndez, 1998: 145).
Z. litterata (Olivier, 1789) = Z. x-notata (Clerck, 1757) (Clerckian names validated by ICZN Direction 104).
Z. maulliniana (Mello-Leitão, 1951, T from Larinia) = Z. x-notata (Clerck, 1757) (Levi, 1974a: 276).

Nomina dubia:
Z. crucinotata (Podrovskii, 1904: 300, f, Russia, originally in Zilla, mistakenly listed under Aranea by Roewer) -- Levi, 1974a: 271.

mf atrica (C. L. Koch, 1845) *....................Europe, Russia (USA, Canada, introduced) [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:017166]
Eucharia a. C. L. Koch, 1845: 103, f. 1030-1031 (Dmf).
Epeira a. Westring, 1851: 35.
Zilla a. Thorell, 1856: 107.
Zygia a. Menge, 1866: 78, pl. 12, f. 20 (mf).
Zilla a. Thorell, 1870a: 31.
Zilla a. Chyzer & Kulczyn'ski, 1891: 137, pl. 5, f. 34 (mf).
Zilla a. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1892: 395, pl. 20, f. 3, pl. 21, f. 9 (mf).
Zilla a. McCook, 1894: 238, pl. 18, f. 7-8 (mf).
Zilla a. Simon, 1895a: 814, f. 866 (m).
Zilla a. Becker, 1896: 51, pl. 10, f. 5 (mf).
Zilla a. Bösenberg, 1901: 46, pl. 3, f. 36 (mf).
Zilla a. Emerton, 1902: 185, f. 431-434 (m).
Zilla a. Emerton, 1909: 201, pl. 5, f. 4 (m).
Araneus atricus Lessert, 1910b: 339.
Aranea a. Reimoser, 1929c: 86, f. 5 (mf).
Z. a. Simon, 1929: 661, 665, 753, f. 1017, 1027 (mf).
Zilla a. Wiehle, 1931: 33, f. 38-40 (mf).
Zilla a. Comstock, 1940: 473, f. 471a, 472a (mf).
Zilla a. Drensky, 1943: 228, f. 9 (mf).
Z. a. Kaston, 1948: 243, f. 748-749, 770 (mf, removed from S of Z. calophylla).
Z. a. Locket & Millidge, 1953: 163, f. 108D, 109A (mf).
Zilla a. Saito, 1959: 109, f. 127a-b (f).
Z. a. Gertsch, 1964a: 16, f. 18-20 (mf).
Z. a. Tyschchenko, 1971: 191, f. 555 (f).
Z. a. Miller, 1971: 204, pl. XXXVII, f. 14 (f).
Z. a. Levi, 1974a: 272, f. 1-8 (mf).
Z. a. Palmgren, 1974a: 12, f. 5d-f (mf).
Z. a. Roberts, 1985: 220, f. 99d (mf).
Z. a. Coddington, 1990: 17, f. 67 (m).
Z. a. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 64, f. 142 (mf).
Z. a. Roberts, 1995: 334, f. (mf).
Z. a. Roberts, 1998: 347, f. (mf).
Z. a. Paquin & Dupérré, 2003: 49, f. 347-349 (mf).
Z. a. Dondale et al., 2003: 298, f. 698-703 (mf).
Z. a. Wunderlich, 2004f: 948, f. 37 (m).
Z. a. Almquist, 2005: 179, f. 184a-g (mf).

f calyptrata (Workman & Workman, 1894)....................China, Myanmar, Malaysia [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:017167]
Epeira c. Workman & Workman, 1894: 21, pl. 21 (f).
Epeira c. Thorell, 1895: 188 (Df).
Z. c. Roewer 1942a: 886.
Z. c. Levi, 1974a: 282, f. 76-80 (f).
Z. calyptrata Yin et al., 1990: 138, f. 341-343 (f, misidentified).
Z. c. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 229, f. 129O-P (f).

mf keyserlingi (Ausserer, 1871)....................Southern Europe, Ukraine [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:017174]
Zilla keyserlingii Ausserer, 1871b: 830, pl. 5, f. 11 (Df).
Zilla atrica Chyzer & Kulczyn'ski, 1891: 137, pl. 5, f. 34 (mf, in part).
Zilla k. Chyzer & Kulczyn'ski, 1897: 307 (Dm).
Z. k. Simon, 1929: 661.
Zilla k. Wiehle, 1931: 35, f. 41-42 (mf).
Z. k. Levi, 1974a: 274, f. 9-14 (mf).
Z. k. Kovblyuk et al., 2008b: 9, f. 2-5, 29-30 (f).

f kirgisica Bakhvalov, 1974....................Kyrgyzstan [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:017175]
Z. kirgisicus Bakhvalov, 1974: 108, f. 15-17 (Df).
Z. k. Bakhvalov, 1982: 138, f. 2 (f).
Z. k. Bakhvalov, 1983: 87, f. 2 (f).

mf minima Schmidt, 1968....................Canary Is., Madeira [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:017178]
Z. x.-notata m. Schmidt, 1968: 414, f. 11 (Dm).
Z. m. Levi, 1974a: 274, f. 15-20 (m, Df, elevated to species).
Z. canariensis Schmidt, 1977: 62, f. 9-11 (Dmf).
Z. m. Wunderlich, 1987a: 135 (S).

mf nearctica Gertsch, 1964....................Alaska, Canada, USA [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:039205]
Z. n. Gertsch, 1964a: 4, f. 3-6 (Dmf).
Z. dispar Levi, 1974a: 278, f. 32, 38-43, 45-47 (mf, misidentified).
Z. n. Paquin & Dupérré, 2003: 49, f. 350-352 (mf).
Z. n. Dondale et al., 2003: 303, f. 711-718 (mf, removed from S).

f poriensis Levy, 1987....................Israel [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:017181]
Z. p. Levy, 1987: 249, f. 26-33 (Df).

?? pulcherrima (Zawadsky, 1902)....................Russia [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:017182]
Zilla p. Zawadsky, 1902: 5 (D).
Z. p. Roewer, 1942a: 884.

mf x-notata (Clerck, 1757)....................Holarctic, Neotropical [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:017187]
Araneus x-notatus Clerck, 1757: 46, pl. 2, f. 5 (Df).
Aranea litterata Olivier, 1789: 206 (D).
Aranea calophylla Walckenaer, 1802: 200 (Dmf).
Epeira calophylla Sundevall, 1833a: 252.
Zilla calophylla C. L. Koch, 1839a: 148, f. 538-539 (mf).
Epeira similis Blackwall, 1844: 186 (Dmf).
Zilla x. Thorell, 1856: 26 (D).
Epeira similis Blackwall, 1864a: 337, pl. 25, f. 244.
Epeira calophylla Blackwall, 1864a: 338, pl. 25, f. 245 (mf).
Zilla calophylla Menge, 1866: 76, pl. 12, f. 19 (Dmf).
Zygia calophylla Ohlert, 1867: 30.
Zilla bösenbergi Keyserling, 1878a: 575, pl. 14, f. 4-5 (Dmf).
Zilla x. Hansen, 1882: 23, pl. 1, f. 39 (mf).
Zilla x. Emerton, 1884: 324, pl. 11, f. 2, pl. 34, f. 13, pl. 37, f. 24-25, 27 (mf).
Zilla x. Chyzer & Kulczyn'ski, 1891: 137, pl. 5, f. 35 (mf).
Zilla x. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1892: 395, pl. 21, f. 8 (mf).
Zilla boesenbergi Keyserling, 1893: 297, pl. 15, f. 220 (mf).
Zilla x. McCook, 1894: 237, pl. 18, f. 1-2 (mf).
Zilla x. Becker, 1896: 53, pl. 11, f. 1 (mf).
Zilla californica Banks, 1896b: 90 (Df).
Zilla x. Bösenberg, 1901: 45, pl. 3, f. 35 (mf).
Zilla x. Emerton, 1902: 185, f. 435 (m).
Zilla x. Engelhardt, 1910: 42, f. 4 (f).
Araneus x-notatus Lessert, 1910b: 340.
Araneus californicus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 283.
Araneus boesenbergi Petrunkevitch, 1911: 283.
Zilla gigans Franganillo, 1913: 128 (Df).
Z. x. Simon, 1929: 663, 665, 754, f. 1018, 1028 (mf).
Zilla litterata Wiehle, 1931: 30, f. 33-37 (mf).
Z. boesenbergi Roewer, 1942a: 887.
Pseudometa biologica Chamberlin, 1925d: 217 (Df).
Zilla x. Comstock, 1940: 474, f. 471b, 472b (mf).
Z. californica Roewer, 1942a: 887.
Zilla litterata Drensky, 1943: 228, f. 10 (mf).
Z. litterata Kaston, 1948: 243, f. 747, 767-769 (mf).
Z. x. Chrysanthus, 1949b: 350, f. 1 (f).
Larinia maulliniana Mello-Leitão, 1951: 331, f. 5-6 (Dm).
Z. x. Locket & Millidge, 1953: 159, f. 108A, C, 109B (mf).
Z. x. Gertsch, 1964a: 12, f. 15-17 (mf, S).
Z. x. Mackie, 1967: 439, f. 1-2, 4-5 (mf).
Z. x. Tyschchenko, 1971: 191, f. 557 (f).
Z. x. Miller, 1971: 204, pl. XXXVII, f. 15 (f).
Z. x. Loksa, 1972: 107, f. 97D-F (mf).
Enoplognatha gigans Levi, 1974a: 271 (Tf from Zilla, nomen dubium, but see Bosmans & Van Keer, 1999: 211).
Z. x. Levi, 1974a: 276, f. 21-31, 57-58 (mf, S).
Z. x. Levi, 1980a: 16 (S).
Z. x. Roberts, 1985: 220, f. 99c (mf).
Z. x. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 66, f. 143 (mf).
Z. x. Roberts, 1995: 334, f. (mf).
Z. x. Hormiga, Eberhard & Coddington, 1995: 323, f. 5C-D (m).
Z. x. Agnarsson, 1996: 66, f. 54A-C (mf).
Z. x. Bellmann, 1997: 100, f. (f).
Z. x. Roberts, 1998: 346, f. (mf).
Z. x. Méndez, 1998: 145 (S).
Z. x. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 229, f. 130D-E (m).
Z. x. Levi, 2001: 473, f. 124-131 (mf).
Z. x. Levi, 2002: 545, f. 171-174, 215 (mf).
Z. x. Dondale et al., 2003: 300, f. 704-710 (mf).
Z. x. Tanikawa, 2004c: 61, f. 1-4 (mf).
Z. x. Almquist, 2005: 181, f. 186a-f (mf).
Z. x. Tanikawa, 2007c: 55, f. 81-82, 481-482 (mf).
Z. x. Türkes & Mergen, 2008: 300, f. 4 (f).
Z. x. Álvarez-Padilla & Hormiga, 2011: 852, f. 139F (m).

m x-notata chelata (Franganillo, 1909)....................Portugal [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:017188]
Zilla x. c. Franganillo, 1909: 189 (Dmf).
Zilla x. c. Franganillo, 1910: 17, f. 7 (mf).

m x-notata percechelata (Franganillo, 1909)....................Portugal [urn:lsid:amnh.org:spidersp:017189]
Zilla x. p. Franganillo, 1909: 189 (Dm).
Zilla x. p. Franganillo, 1910: 17 (m).